During his years as Curator of the National Botanic Gardens Sir Frederick Moore built the Orchid collection at Glasnevin into a world leader. At the time of his death, the collection comprised more than a thousand species and over 600 hybrids. Not only did Frederick Moore purchase large numbers of plants from the firms of O'Brien, Bull, Low, Sanders, Stevens, and Veitch, but was also donated material by these same firms. Knowing Frederick Moore's fondness for the small and unusual (plants often spurned by the collectors of flamboyance and gaudiness), many firms would send him miscellaneous collections of unsold material at the end of each season. A consequence of this method of acquiring material meant that many plants were unnamed, and when these were sent to Kew for identification by Robert Rolfe, some proved to be new to Science. Thus the Orchid house was the source of many new species described between the 1880s and 1920s.

Frederick Moore arranged for many of these orchids to be painted when they flowered. The Gardens still holds this collection of nearly 1300 orchid portraits painted by Lydia Shackleton and Alice Jacob. Those depicting new species described from the Botanic Gardens collections are listed below:

Aeranthes caudata Lydia Shackleton
Aeranthes ramosa Lydia Shackleton
Aerides platychilum Lydia Shackleton
Angraecum andersonii (Gold Coast)
Bulbophyllum capituliflorum Lydia Shackleton
Bulbophyllum congestum (Burma/China)
Bulbophyllum dichromum (Vietnam) Lydia Shackleton Curtisís bot. mag. (1907) tab. 8160.
Bulbophyllum robustum
Bulbophyllum spectabile (Assam)
Calanthe burmanica (Burma)
Cirrhopetalum miniatum (Vietnam) Lydia Shackleton
Coelia densiflora (C. America)
Coelogyne annamensis (Vietnam) Alice Jacob
Coelogyne mooreana Lydia Shackleton Curtisís bot. mag. tab. 8297.
Colax tripterus (Brazil)
Cryptophoranthus moorei (America)
Cryptophoranthus oblongifolius (Andes)
Epidendrum congestum (Costa Rica)
Epidendrum hartii (Trinidad)
Epidendrum mooreanum Curtisís bot. mag. (1927) tab. 9179.
Epidendrum tricarinatum (Peru)
Eria albolutea (Philippines)
Ione flavescens (Burma)
Lycaste locusta var. mooreana Curtisís bot. mag. (1905), tab. 8020.
Masdevallia mooreana Curtisís bot. mag. (1887), tab. 7015.
Masdevallia peruviana Lydia Shackleton
Masdevallia pusilla Lydia Shackleton
Maxillaria insignis (Peru)
Maxillaria mooreana Lydia Shackleton
Megaclinium pusillum (Africa)
Megaclinium ugandae (Uganda)
Mystacidium gracillimum (Uganda)
Neomoorea wallisii Curtisís bot. mag. (1892), tab. 7262
Panisea tricallosa (Assam)
Pelexia maculata
Phalaenopsis javanica
Phalaenopsis latisepala
Physosiphon guatemalensis (Guatemala)
Physosiphon lindleyi (Mexico) Curtisís bot. mag. (1933), tab. 9325.
Platyclinis rufa (Asia)
Pleurothallis puberula
Restrepia dentata Lydia Shackleton
Saccolabium mooreanum Curtisís bot. mag. (1895), tab. 7428.
Sarcanthus inflatus (Vietnam) Lydia Shackleton
Scaphyglottis alba
Signatostilax bicornuta (Peru)