Botanical Resources


Flora of Ireland


Threatened Plants



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R. Lloyd Praeger, Sc.D., D.Sc., M.R.I.A.
W.Tempest, Dundalgan Press, Dundalk, 1949


According to Pritzel and Britten & Boulger this well-known novelist, who was born in Oxfordshire of an old Irish family and died at Edgeworthstown in Co. Longford, at the family seat, wrote a book entitled Dialogues on Botany : for the use of young persons (London, 1819)* . Of this I have not been able to see a copy. A point of interest in relation to her Irish connections is that she was one of the five women who have been admitted as Members (Honorary) to the Royal Irish Academy; the others being the Princess Daschkaw, Miss Caroline Herschell, Mrs. Somerville and Miss Margaret Stokes.

A. J. C. Hare: Life and Letters of Maria Edgtworth, 1894. Webb: Compendium ( Irish Biography, 163. Britten & Boulger, S. 2, 99. Dict. Nat. Biogr. 16, 382.

[* No! see M.E.Mitchell, INJ 19 (1979) p. 407. It was Henrietta [Harriet] Beaufort.]

Born at Edgeworthstown in Longford, and died at Eigg in Inverness. A half-brother of Maria Edgeworth the novelist. He entered the Bengal Civil Service, and botanized in the East, publishing several papers with the Linnean Society, etc. `The genus Edgeworthia Meisn. was named after him.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 100. Dict. Nat. Biogr. 16, 382.

c. 1710-1776
Jail Ellis was a London merchant, Irish by birth. He introduced many American seeds to English gardens, and wrote on corallines and zoophytes. He was Agent for West Florida and for Dominica, and was elected F.A.S. in 1754. Linnaeus, with whom he corresponded, named the genus Ellisia after him. He published papers in the Philosophical Transactions, described several new genera, and gained the Coyley Medal of the Royal Society. Linnaeus described him as a "bright star of natural history."

Britten and Banker, 2, 102.

An Irish theologian, philosopher, and poet. Regarded as Europe’s greatest philosopher of the early middle ages, Johannes Scottus Eriugena (Ireland (Ériu)-born), was an Irishman. Eriugena was highly proficient in Greek, which, though rare at that time in mainland Europe, was to be found used in the learning tradition of Early and Medieval Ireland, as evidenced by the use of greek script in medieval Irish manuscripts. Thus, with an Irish education, he was well equipped for European society, and his linguistic competences allowed for intellectual exchanges with his fellow Europeans. He moved to France (about 845) and took over the Palatine Academy at the invitation of King Charles the Bald. He succeeded Alcuin of York (735 - 804) as head of the Palace School. The reputation of this school seems to have increased greatly under Eriugena's leadership, and the philosopher himself was treated with indulgence by the king. Whereas Alcuin was a schoolmaster rather than a philosopher, Eriugena was a noted Greek scholar. He was one of the most original thinkers of the entire Middle Ages. His claim to fame is that Erica erigena is named in his honour, having formerly been known as Erica hibernica, a name used for a south African species of Heather 13 years earlier than E. erigena. His face graced the previous 5 pound note.

b. 1893
Anthony Farrington was born at Cork, and went through University College there, taking the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in 1921. He worked as a mining engineer in Portugal, 1915-1919, and attended the School of Mines in Cornwall. Joining the staff of the Geological Survey (Irish branch) in 1921, he was engaged chiefly in revision work and on the survey of the drifts. He was appointed Resident Secretary to the Royal Irish Academy in 1928, and has devoted his leisure time to glacial geology and geomorphology in which subjects he has published a number of papers. He was awarded the degree of Sc.D. by Dublin University in 1936 in recognition of his work.

Personal knowledge.

b 1911. d. Dublin 5 June 1984
R.C. Faris, solicitor, of Cavan (address Farrinseer, Comafean) has worked for some years at the insects, etc., of Co. Cavan and the surrounding area, with good results; and in conjunction with his wife (née Cole) has added considerably to our knowledge of the distribution of the flowering plants of that region. Cavan has not had a resident botanist or zoologist before, so their industry is very welcome especially from the standpoint of fixing the distribution of local species. He is a valued observer in a region in which naturalists are and have been few.

Personal knowledge.

b. Birr? 1919. d. Tralee June 1980
UCD graduate, taught science, maths and chemistry in Central Tech Tralee for 38 years. Retired 1970, playwright and botanist. 'Vigil' produced in Abbey theatre 1929. Collected c. 2000 bryophytes – donated to DBN in 1981.

G. P. Farrar was born in Dublin. He took the B.A. degree (in zoology) in Dublin University in 1899, worked in the National Museum and on the Royal Dublin Society's Fishery Survey, and in 1901 was appointed Assistant Naturalist in the Fisheries Branch of the Government service. He became Inspector (1910) and then Chief Inspector (1938), retiring in 1946. He published, chiefly in the official Scientific Investigations, many papers arising front the dredgings and trawlings of the Fisheries cruisers, and dealing with marine invertebrates.

Irish Nat. Journ., 9, 206-208. portrait. Personal knowledge.

1851-1926 William Fawcett was born at Arklow, and took his B.Sc. degree at London University . He was an Assistant in the Department of Botany, British Museum, 1880-1886, when be went to Jamaica to become Director of the Botanic Garden there. Returning in 1908, he joined A. B. Rendle in writing the Flora of Jamaica (1910-1926).

Britten & Bolger, 2 106. Personal knowledge.

Raised in Tramore, Waterford left the county in 1955 to attend Albert College, Glasnevin on a scholarship as a Horticultural Student. From there he went to work at Kew. Keith was BSBI vice-county recorder for county Waterford from 1962 until he handed it over to Paul Green in 2001.

Paul Green, Flora of Waterford 2008.

NORA FISHER—see Nora Fisher

fl. 1817-1866
Miss Fitton, who was born in Dublin, published in 1817 (with her sister Elizabeth), Conversations on Botany and The Four Seasons in 1865. The genus Fittonia Coeman's Flore des Serres commemorates her.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 109,

W. H. Fitton was born in Dublin, and took the B.A. degree in Dublin University in 1799, about which time he suffered arrest and brief imprisonment for collecting fossils, which was thought by some military genius of the day to have a connection with rebel activities. He went to Edinburgh University, then to London, practiced as a physician at Northampton, and was admitted M.D. of Cambridge. Fie worked successfully at various problems of the stratigraphical geology of the Secondary rocks, and initiated the well-known Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, of which he became President (1818). He was elected F.A.S. in 1815.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 18 (Proc.), wig. Diaz. Nat. Biogr., 19, 84.

R. D. Fitzgerald was born at Tralee. From 1856 onwards he resided in Sydney, becoming Deputy Surveyor-General. He published Australian Orchids (1875-1888), the figures being drawn by himself, and contributed to various botanical publications. Dracocephalum fitzgeraldi F.M. commemorates him.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 109.

Arthur Humphreys Foord was born in Kent. From 1883 till 1886 he was at work on the Geological Survey of Canada, writing on the micro-palaeontology and corals of Palaeozoic rocks. Both before and after his removal to Dublin in 1891 he was busy at his best-known work, the Catalogue of the fossil Cephalopods in the British Museum. In Dublin he held the post of Librarian and Editor to the Royal Dublin Society. He resigned in 1939, and spent his last years in Sussex. He was an honorary D.Sc. of Munich University. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 90 (Proc.), lii. Personal knowledge.

A. W. Foot, M.D., was born in Dublin, graduated in arts and medicine in Dublin University in 1862, and held a leading position among Dublin doctors. "He will be remembered by naturalists for his researches in Irish entomology. Almost the only follower in this country of the great Haliday's work on the Diptera, Dr. Foot published two valuable papers in the sixth volume of the Proceedings of the Dublin Nat. Hist. Society (1869)." Stelfox's short article on him in the Irish Naturalists' Journal shows that he was an energetic zoologist.

Irish Nat., 9, 241. Stelfox in Irish Nat. Journ., 3, 260.

Plate 18 F. J. Foot obtained an M.A. degree at Dublin University and in 1854 the post of Assistant Geologist on the Irish Geological Survey. He worked in Co. Clare not only at official mapping, but at zoology and botany besides, publishing among other papers an important one on the distribution of plants in Burren (Trans. R.I.Acad., 24, 1862); this was the first good account of the flora of that remarkable region. He was drowned in Lough Key near Boyle in 1867.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 110. Roy. Soc. Cat. Sci. Papers, 7, 686. Geol. Mag. 1867, 95, 132. Botanical notes on the Midland counties Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Dublin 4 (1865) 194-8

The honoured name of Edward Forbes, who was born at Douglas, Isle of Man—zoologist, botanist, palaeontologist, traveller, and eventually Professor of Botany at Edinburgh University—is connected with Irish natural history chiefly as the author of an important paper "On the Connexion between the distribution of the existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, and the geological changes which have affected their area, especially during the epoch of the Northern Drift," which has become classical on account of his reasoned advocacy of the pre-glacial age of part of the fauna and flora—a masterly exposition of a subject which is still in dispute, though his views have steadily gained ground since he put them forward.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 11 (Proc.), xxvii. Wilson and Geikie (Memoir of Edward Forbes, 1861. Dict. Nat. Biogr., 19, 398. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 110. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gt. Britain, 1, 336. 1846.

Canon Foster was born at Ventry, Co. Kerry, educated at Belfast and Dublin, taking the degrees of B.A. (R.U.I.) and B.D. (London), and spent his life as a clergyman in Co. Down. From boyhood he was a keen zoologist, and specialized in the Lepidoptera. He collected much in Ireland, chiefly in Armagh, Down, Donegal and Kerry. His "Lepidoptera of County Down" (Proc. Belf. Nat. Field Club 3, Appendix 5) is a valuable local list.

Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 259.

Nevin Harkness Foster was a Tyrone man, born at Coalisland and educated at Dungannon; he spent most of his life in business at Hillsborough in Co. Down. From early years he was interested in ornithology, and with other members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club he observed and taught the interest and beauty of birds. Later he took up the study of the terrestrial Isopoda or woodlice, and added considerably to our knowledge of their local distribution. He worked also at the Symphyla. He was a President of the Belfast Club (1909-10) and received their Commemoration Medal, and also the Honorary Membership of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society.

Irish Nat. Journ., I, 197, portrait. 1927. Personal knowledge.

fl. 1884-1899
Freeman deserves mention here as being the pioneer in the study of fresh-water mites in Ireland. He collected in Co. Dublin in 1884-85, and on the appearance of Piersig's monograph he named and published his captures (Irish Nat., 8, 157, 1899). Halbert (q.v.) eventually took up the work and carried it much further. Freeman was a medical man, having taken his M.B. in Dublin University, but he did not practice. He entered the Civil Service, working in London and afterwards in Dublin.

fl. 1895-1897
Freke was an entomologist belonging to Co. Carlow, and living in Dublin. He contributed to the Irish Naturalist, 1895-1897, much his most important paper being "A List of Irish Hymenoptera Aculeata" (5, 3943), including over 100 species, this being the first collective list of the group. The Irish Aculeate hymenopterous fauna (about 170 species) being only about one-third that of Britain, this was a very praiseworthy effort.

Irish Naturalist l.c., Stelfox in Proc. R. I. Acad, 37 B. 205.

b. 1902
Winifred Frost was born at Crewe. She took the degree of B.Sc. (1923) and M.Sc. (1926) in Liverpool University, and in 1945 was awarded the D.Sc. degree for her work in zoology. She obtained the post of Technical Assistant in the Fisheries Branch in Dublin in 1928, and was there till 1939, when she took up an appointment (now known as Scientific Officer for Fish) under the Fresh-water Biology Association at Wray Castle, Ambleside. While in Ireland she worked at limnology (including a survey of the River Liffey by R. Southern and herself in connection with the food of trout), at marine plankton (especially the euphausiids), etc. Her Irish work was published mainly by the Royal Irish Academy. At Wray Castle she continues her investigations on fresh-water fishes.

Personal knowledge.


Dublin Historical Record 35 1981

Miss Gage was born in the family house on Rathlin Island, Co. Antrim, and died there. She studied the island plants, and wrote on them (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5, 145. 1850). But her record of EriocauIon septangulare has never been confirmed.

Irish Nat. 22, 26, 1913. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 117.

C. J. Gahan was born at Roscrea, and educated at Queen's College, Galway, and the Royal School of Mines. He entered the British Museum as Assistant in 1886, and was Keeper of the Department of Entomology from 1918 till 1927. He held the degrees of M.A. and D.Sc. He wrote much on insects in both English and foreign publications, and was responsible for the first volume of Coleoptera in the Fauna of British India.

Who was Who.

Ganly was born in Dublin. He took the B.A. degree in Dublin University in 1849 and was employed on the Boundary Survey and General Valuation of Ireland, 1827-1860. Though he published very little his letters (three MS. volumes in the Valuation Office, Dublin, 1837-1848) addressed to Griffith and John Kelly, were the basis of much of the revisions of Griffith's Geological Map of Ireland. He was the first to use the method of current-bedding to determine the orientation of strata (paper read before the Geological Society of Dublin, 1856).

Information supplied by A. Farrington.

C. I. Gardiner was Science Master at Cheltenham College, and subsequently Curator of the lately established Cowle Museum at Stroud. While at Cambridge he undertook with S. H. Reynolds field-work on the Lower Palaeozoic rocks. They worked at the Ordovician and Gotlandian formations in Ireland, and published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (vols. 52-70, 1896-1914) a series of nine papers which form an important contribution to our knowledge of these rocks.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 97, lxxxvi, 1941.

Garrett was a solicitor in Belfast. He was a keen naturalist, interested especially in birds, and a leader in the local scientific circle of his day. Under the will of William Thompson (Alit 1852) he and Robert Patterson were entrusted with the completion of the Natural History of Ireland. He is stated to have arranged for publication of Thompson's MS. on the mammals, reptiles, and fishes as they appear in vol. iv. He died before that volume issued from the press.

Nat. Hist. Review, 2, 79.

(born Karl Ludwig Metzle)
Giesecke (to use his adopted name) was born in Augsburg. In early life this remarkable man was much interested in opera and literature. He wrote a good deal especially on theatrical matters, and was a friend of Schiller, Klopstock and Goethe, and associated also with Mozart. He took up the study of minerals, and collected extensively in Greenland (sent thither by the King of Denmark); and after adventures and mishaps, was appointed Professor of Mineralogy to the Dublin Society (1814). He could not lecture in English, but devoted himself to his subject, and made extensive tours through the west and north of Ireland (1825-1828).

The mineral gieseckite was named after him. His title was Danish, not British. Berry: History of the Royal Dublin Society. 1915. Portrait. Waterhouse in Proc. R.I.Acad., 41 C, 210. 1933. 2 Autograph books are in the manuscript room of the National Library – Carruthers INJ 10 (1952) 264

Giraldus de Barri, better known as Giraldus Cambrensis, from the land of his birth, was born in the castle of Manorbeer in Pembrokeshire and had a rather stormy career of a politico-religious kind, on account of wrangles, in which English kings and archbishops played leading parts, as to his preferment to high ecclesiastical positions. The portion of his life which concerns us here is his residence in Ireland as secretary to Prince John (1185-1186), and the Topographica Hibernica in which he records his notes and observations on a vast number of subjects, including much of interest relating to the fauna of Ireland. He was a careful recorder, but credulous; and from his statements it often requires care and ingenuity to extract the truth. The Historical Works of Giraldus Candnensis . . . Revised and edited, with additional notes, by Thomas Wright. G. Bell & Sons, 1905. And subsequent editions.

Dict. Nat. Mar.., 21, 389. Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia Hibernica. Text of first recension. By John J. O'Meara. Proc. R.I. Acad., 52 C, 113-178. 1949.

fl. 1893-1900
Miss Glascott, of Alderton, New Ross, inspired by A. C. Haddon, whose student she was in Dublin, worked at Irish Rotifers, and published (Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc., 8, 29-86, 7 plates, 1893) a paper dealing with 158 species, 24 of them described as new to science. Unfortunately, subsequent workers at the group have not succeeded in confirming or re-finding her new species, which tends to invalidate the value of her work. Her specimens were collected in Cos. Wexford (mainly), Waterford, Dublin, Carlow and Kerry. She joined with Barrett-Hamilton in two papers on Wexford flowering plants (Irish Nat., 1889-1890).

Sci. Pros. R.D.S., l.c. Hood in Proc. R. I. Acad., 19, 664. 1895.

Joint Honorary Secretary of the College of Science Association.

John Grainger, D.D., was born in Belfast in 1830, and took his M.A. degree at Dublin University in 1859. He joined his father, a ship-owner, for a few years, but then entered the ministry, was curate successively in five parishes in Belfast and Dublin and finally became rector of Skerry and Rathcavan in Antrim; he lived there (at Broughshane) until his death. He worked at Pleistocene fossils when in Belfast, but soon devoted himself to collecting, first in the domains of zoology, geology, and archaeology, and later in almost every field, and filled his house at Broughshane (he was a bachelor) with specimens and objects from eve part of the world. Unfortunately these were often unlocalised and unlabelled. Before his death he presented his entire collection to the City of Belfast. I was in charge of its removal and packing, over fifty years ago now, and well remember the problem of dealing with so varied an assortment, for the objects ranged from a fair-sized dolmen to New Zealand weapons, flint-flakes, stuffed birds, beads, crystals, and microscopic shells. He published several papers on Pleistocene fossils, etc.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Volume, 77, portrait. 1924. Personal knowledge.

b. 1876
Philip Perceval Graves, of Ballylicky House, Bang,, was born at Bowdon, Cheshire. He went to Oxford, taking the B.A. degree in 1900. He became a foreign journalist, and writer for The Times, 1906-1946, and served in the first world war. He is a student of the Lepidoptera and Odonata and has written numerous papers chiefly on those of the Near East; and an important one deals with the British and Irish Maniola jurtina (Entomologist, 1930).

Personal information.

The death in his eighty-sixth year of William Gray, inspector under the Board of Works, removed one of the pioneers of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, and one of the most familiar figures in scientific circles in the north. Mr. Gray belonged to the period when a "naturalist" was expected to know something of the whole range of natural science, and he acquired a wide knowledge of local geology, zoology and archaeology. But detailed study did not appeal to him, and though he collected extensively he contributed little to scientific literature during his long and active life. He was born in Co. Cork, and was employed on fortifications at Portland before entering the service of the Irish Office of Works.

Irish Nat., 26, 47. Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Volume, 79, portrait. 1924. Personal knowledge.

Plates 4, 16, 17 Rev. William Spotswood Green, M.A., CB., was born at Youghal, passed in due course through Trinity College, Dublin, took his M.A. degree and entered the church. He was for many years rector of Carrigaline in Co. Cork, a quiet country parish. But he was by nature a man of great energy, a lover of adventure, and a naturalist, and he soon made opportunities for work suited to his ardent temperament. Thus he was the first to attain, in 1881, accompanied by two Grindelwald guides, the summit of Mount Cook (12,349 feet), the highest of the New Zealand Alps. Work in tropical forests resulted only in fever and ague, so he returned to the mountains and carried out in 1888 surveying for the Canadian Government among the peaks and huge glaciers of the Selkirks. But his most fertile work was among the fishes and invertebrates of Atlantic waters. In 1885 and 1886, under the aegis of the Royal Irish Academy, he and A. C. Haddon were leaders of expeditions to explore the marine fauna of the 100-fathom line off the south-west of Ireland; and in 1888 a third and more ambitious expedition pushed out and dredged and trawled in up to 1,200 fathoms, with excellent results. The expense was met mainly by the Royal Irish Academy. These explorations, the success of which was largely due to the indefatigable energy in calm or storm of W. S. Green, greatly increased knowledge concerning the fauna of the waters lying off Ireland.
Green left the church in 1890 to become Inspector of Fisheries, and he remained in the Fisheries service till he retired. Combined with this work he was a Commissioner on the Congested Districts Board, where his intimate knowledge of human conditions in western Ireland was of great service. In 1914 he shook off the trammels of office, and retired to West Cove in Kerry, on the edge of the ocean that he knew and loved so well; and there he died five years later.
He wrote two very readable books giving an account of his mountaineering experiences - The High Alps of New Zealand (1883) and Among the Selkirk Glaciers (1890).

Irish Nat., 28, 81, portrait. Praeger: The Way that I Went. Personal knowledge.

Rev. Joseph Greene, who was an M.A of Dublin University (1858) wrote "A List of Lepidoptera hitherto taken in Ireland as far as the end of the Geometrae" (Nat. Hist. Review, 1., 165, 238. 1854), important as being the first attempt at a comprehensive list of Irish Lepidoptera. He wrote also The Insect Hunter's Companion, which went to several editions. His other papers (1852-1866) also concerned with the Lepidoptera, were of a more specialized nature; he was an adept in the art of pupa digging.

Roy. Sot. Cat. Sci. Papers, 3, 3, 7, 831. Entom. Monthly Mag., 42, 66.

ff. 1857-1877
J. Reay Greene was Professor of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork, from 1858 till 1877. He was interested especially in the Hydrozoa, and wrote several papers dealing with those found around the Irish shores. He joined with E. P. Wright in a Report to the British Association (1858) on the marine fauna of the south and west coasts of Ireland. Renouf mentions a small ten-book of zoology that he wrote, based on some of his lectures.

Roy. Soc. Cat. Sci. Papers, 3, 4. Renouf in Irish Nat. Journ., 3, 239.

Thomas Greer was born at Lissan, Cookstown. He was engaged in land surveying, 1890-1894, and in electrical engineering, 1897-1900. He was a student of the Lepidoptera since school-days, and contributed papers and notes to the Irish Naturalist and to entomological journals, also a more comprehensive paper, "The Lepidoptera of the North of Ireland" to Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club (3, App. 4). He wrote also on plants of the northern Irish counties.

Irish Nat. Journ., 9, 327-328. Personal knowledge.

Sir Richard John Griffith, first baronet, was born in Dublin. He adopted the profession of mining engineer, working first in Scotland, then in Ireland. In 1802 he was appointed mining engineer and Professor of Geology to the Royal Dublin Society, and prepared a geological map of Ireland - " one of the most remarkable geological maps ever produced by a single geologist," as Edward Forbes said of it—which is still often consulted. He surveyed the Leinster coalfield, the bogs of Ireland, and as Commissioner of Valuation carried out a very complete survey of the whole country; and was responsible for other noteworthy public activities. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of Dublin, and from the King a baronetcy (1858) in recognition of his services.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 23, 238. Quart. Journ. Geol. Sec., 35, Proc., 39.93

d. 1940
" E. M. Gumley's niche in the edifice erected to the memory of prominent Irish naturalists is that reserved for those who inspire and organize nature-lovers." He himself had but a smattering of natural science, but he was responsible for the formation of two northern Naturalists' Field Clubs—first the Route, with headquarters in Coleraine and Ballycastle, and then the Tyrone, located at Omagh. These Clubs, like those of Londonderry and of Limavady, drew largely on the long-established Belfast Club for their scientific sustenance, which was willingly rendered in the shape of lectures; their progress depended—and depends—largely on the adherence of a few enthusiasts—and Gumley was a super-enthusiast. His own career was that of a clergyman, mostly in Antrim parishes. In his work as an apostle in the cause of popular natural history study he ranks with Robert Welch.

lrish Nat. Journ., 7, 292. Personal knowledge.

Alfred Core Haddon, Sc.D., F.R.S., zoologist and anthropologist, was born in London and took the B.A. degree at Cambridge in 1879, becoming Curator of the Zoological Museum and Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy there. Next year he was appointed Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland, which post he held for twenty years, though in the latter part he lived except during term-time in England, and made an expedition to Torres Straits. He went to study marine biology but found such important work in anthropology waiting to be done there that he threw himself wholeheartedly into the study of man, and after 1900 his numerous papers and treatises deal wholly with that subject, in which he became an authority. He made Cambridge his permanent home in 1901 on election to a Fellowship in Christ's College. As an Irish naturalist resident in Dublin he was an energetic organizer and researcher in marine zoology, planning and carrying out dredging expeditions to the deep waters off the south-west coast in 1885 and 1886, reporting on the marine fauna of Dublin Bay and of the south-west of Ireland, and working especially at the sea-anemones. During the latter part of his stay in Ireland he became interested in Irish anthropology and (partly in conjunction with Dr. C. R. Browne) published in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy several papers on craniology, etc. As a Cambridge anthropologist he advanced his chosen science by studies embodied in several books and very numerous papers, based largely on the results of expeditions to Tortes Straits (1898-9) and Papua (1914).

Quiggin: Haddon the Head Hunter. 1942. Roy. Soc. Obit Notices, 1940, 449, portrait, bibliography. Personal knowledge.

J. N. Halbert was born in Dublin. He entered the National Museum there as Technical Assistant in 1892 and twelve years later was promoted to the Assistantship rendered vacant by the transfer of G. H. Carpenter to the Professorship of Zoology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland. He worked at insects, producing in collaboration with Rev. W. F. Johnson the well-known "List of the Beetles of Ireland" (Proc. R.I.Acad., 22. 1901). Later he specialized in the Irish water-mites and published a comprehensive paper upon them (R.I.A., 50. 1944). After his retirement under the age limit he continued and extended his studies on Irish mites until his death.

Irish Nat. Journ. 9, 168-171, portrait.

Alexander Henry Haliday was born at Holywood, Co. Down. He took his M.A. degree at Dublin University, and, called to the bar, joined the north-eastern circuit. But, like his friend and contemporary, William Thompson of Belfast, interest in zoology, and especially insects, possessed him, and93 he soon retired from practice. His first paper was published before he left college, and was succeeded by many others, which established for him a high repute as an entomologist. "Nothing," wrote J.O. Westwood, "has ever exceeded the clearness and precision of his general views, as well as his minute and elaborate details." Baron Osten Sacken wrote, "He had an intense desire for completeness and perfection, which was quite disinterested, because shy of publicity; he had an intense desire of being useful, by imparting useful knowledge to others, unmindful of the amount of work it involved." In 1861 bad health led him to reside in Italy; and there he died nine years later. Although he was one of the ablest of all entomologists, little notice seems to have been taken of his life or death, due no doubt to his retiring disposition; the appreciations mentioned below (the first two due to his old friend E. Perceval Wright) arc from the only biographies i have found.

Irish Nat., 11, 197, portrait. Entom.Monthly Mag, 7, 91. National Museum, Dublin: Bulletin, 3, 27-28, portrait.

b. 1869
Timothy Hallissy was born at Blarney in Co. Cork. He studied science at Queen's College, Cork, and the Royal College of Science in Dublin, taking the degree of B.A. in the Royal University and the A.R.C.Sc.I. He taught agricultural science at Mount Bellew, Co. Galway, and' became Assistant Geologist in the Geological Survey of Ireland in 1906, Geologist 1908, Senior Geologist 1921, and Director of the Irish Survey in 1928, retiring in 1939. His work was mainly official, but he collaborated with Prof. Cole in the useful Handbook of the Geology of Ireland (1924) and worked on the International Soil Map (Irish part).

Personal information,

Rev. William Hamilton, D.D. will be remembered among geologists for his Letters concerning the northern coast of the County of Antrim, containing a natural history of its basaltes, with an account of such circumstances as are worthy of notice respecting the antiquities, manners and customs of that country ... (1790). The author, a Derry man, was elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, at the age of twenty-four, a few months before he took the degree of M.A. in 1779. While at college he took a leading part in the formation of a learned society called the "Palaeosophers" which, soon fused with another similar body, the "Neosophers," formed the nucleus of the Royal Irish Academy, founded mainly by their members in 1785. He went to Donegal in 1790 as rector of the large and lonely parish of Clondevaddog, lying between Lough Swilly and Sheep Haven. The unrest which culminated in the rebellion of 1798 was reflected here, and as a magistrate and an upholder of British rule in Ireland, he had to carry on his duties under military protection. In 1797, returning from across Lough Swilly, the ferry boat was delayed by storm. Hamilton went to the house of his friend Dr. Waller. At night the house was attacked; Mrs. Waller was shot dead, and the terrified servants thrust out the cause of the trouble. Hamilton was instantly set upon and killed, and his body lay by the doorstep until morning. His widow and nine children were provided for by a grant of the House of Commons.
Hamilton's Letters, in addition to a full and interesting account of Rathlin Island and its people as he found it a hundred and fifty years ago, is occupied with a full discussion of the Antrim basalts, the origin of which, whether due to tire or water, was still a matter of controversy among the learned. Though himself no trained geologist, his careful observations and shrewd reasoning did much to advance the belief in the igneous origin of these stratified rocks. His little book was appreciated, as shown by its re-issue several times in editions emanating from Dublin or Belfast.

Memoir, in the Belfast (1822) edition of Hamilton's Letters. Praeger: A Populous Solitude, 133. 1941.

Thomas Hancock, a quaker physician who practised in London and Liverpool, was born at Lisburn. He wrote on several subjects, from epidemics to pacifism, and was the author of a paper on " Plants found near Bristol " (1836) in the Proceedings of the Botanical Society of London which, with his Irish birth, entides him to mention here. Dict. Nat. Biogr., 24, 276. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 138. WILLIAM HANCOCK
William Hancock was born at Lurgan and educated at Queen's College, Belfast He was in the Chinese Maritime Customs service and collected plants in China, Formosa, etc. The genus Hancockia Rolfe, commemorates him.

Britten Boulger, ed. 2. 138.

Harkness was born in Lancashire and educated at Dumfries Academy and Edinburgh University. He carried out pioneer work on the geology and fossils of the south-west of Scotland and the Lake District, and was appointed to the Chair of Natural History at Cork in 1853, which post he resigned shortly before his death in 1878. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1856. Some 60 papers of his are listed (Roy. Soc. Cat.) of which a few relate to Ireland.

Renouf, in Irish Nat. Journ. 3, 240.

b. 1910
John Robert Harris was born in Dublin, and was appointed Lecturer in Linmology in Trinity College in 1946. He has made a special study of the Ephemeroptera (Mayflies), the results of which will be included in a book to be called An Angler's Entomology which he is at present compiling for the " New Naturalist" Series. This book will deal mainly with the natural history of the Ephemeroptera and to a lesser extent with the Trichoptera, Plecopteta, and other insects of aquatic origin. He published papers relating to freshwater fish and fish parasites.

William Harris was born in Enniskillen and was trained in horticulture at Kew. He went to Jamaica in 1881, becoming Superintendent of Public Gardens there (1908), and later Government Botanist (1917) and Assistant to the Director (1920). He made large collections, and the genera Harrisia N. L. Britt. (Cactaccae) and Harrisella Fawcett & Rendle (Orchidaceae) are named after him. He was elected F.L.S in 1899.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2,140. Journ. Bet. 55, 298. Kew 1921, 31.

WALTER HARRIS—see under Isaac Butler

Henry Chichester Hart was born in Dublin of a Donegal family, his father being Sir Andrew S. Hart, Vice-Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. At the age of seventeen he began a botanical survey of his native county, which he continued intermittently until 1898, when he published his well-known Flora of the County Donegal, a book of which the greater part of the edition was unfortunately destroyed by fire during the disturbances of 1916. Hart took his degree (B.A.) in Dublin University in experimental and natural science; later he turned to Elizabethan literature, and edited several plays for the "Arden Shakspere," and Ben Jonson's works for the " Standard Library: But it was his arduous work in exploring Ireland that causes his name to stand high in the annals of Irish botany. He was a man of magnificent physique, a daring climber and a tireless walker, and though his pace was usually too fast for exhaustive work, he missed little, and penetrated to places where very few have followed him. Of all the botanical explorers whom A. G. More enlisted in the preparation of the second edition of Cybele Hibernica, Hart was the most active, searching mountain-ranges, rivers, lakes, islands, and coasts in order to determine the distribution of rare flowering plants. He was also a good ornithologist and folklorist. Hart did not confine himself to Ireland, but was a member of a geological expedition to Palestine under Prof. E. Hull, and was botanist to the British Polar Expedition under Nares. Some interesting personal reminiscences are given by R. M. Barrington in the Irish Naturalist notice mentioned below.

Irish Nat., 17, 249, portrait. Prager: The Way that I Went, 57. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 140. Personal knowledge.

b. 1886
John Jerom Hartley was born at Crosshills, Yorkshire. He studied at the University of Manchester (1902-1903), Liverpool (1903-1906) and McGill (Montreal) (1912) taking the degrees of M.Sc. (London) and M.Eng. (Liverpool). He was an assistant engineer on railways in Canada and England, and from 1926 onwards Lecturer in Geology in Queen's University, Belfast. Geology is his special study, and he has contributed to leading Journals numerous papers dealing particularly with the English Lake District and northern Ireland, the most important being those relating to the Sperrin Mountains and north-east Tyrone.

Personal information.

Marcus Hartog was appointed Professor of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork (now University College) in 1882. When the chair was divided in 1909 he became Professor of Zoology, which post he held till 1921. He had graduated M.A. from Trinity College, Cambridge, with first class honours in 1874, and became Assistant Director of the Botanic Gardens in Ceylon. Thence he passed to Owens College, Manchester, as demonstrator in natural history, and thence to Cork. He was D.Sc. of London. Hartog's main interest was concerned with heredity, reproduction and cell-division, and on these subjects he wrote much, embodying his views in a book, Problems of Life and Reproduction (1913). He was a good linguist, familiar with half a dozen European languages, which compensated for his comparative isolation at Cork. He was a specialist on the Rotifer, and wrote the section of the Cambridge Natural History dealing with that group.

Irish Nat., 33, 39. Renouf in Irish Nat. Joan., 3, 240. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2. 141. Personal knowledge.

William Henry Harvey, M.D., was born in Limerick, attended the quaker school at Ballitore in Kildare and joined his father in his business in Limerick, spending his leisure time at botany and zoology, and publishing more and more important botanical work. In 1835 he went to South Africa, where his brother was Colonial Treasurer, and succeeded him in the following year, but the climate did not suit him and he came home in 1842. He became Professor of Botany in the Royal Dublin Society in 1848 and in Dublin University in 1856. He made a three years voyage to Australia, etc., and returning to Dublin published further important books dealing with the botany of North America, South Africa, etc. Harvey was the foremost phycologist of his day. His contributions to Irish natural science were slight. He was an honorary M.D. of Dublin University (1844) and F.A.S. (1858). His portrait is in the National Gallery, Dublin.

Mrs. Lydia Fisher: Memoir of W. H. Harvey, London, 1869 (portrait). Dict. Nat. Biogr, 25, 100. Webb: Commpend. Irish Biography, 245. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2. 141. Praeger. in Tansley: Makers of British Botany, 1923.

Rev. Dr. Houghton was essentially a product of Trinity College, Dublin. Born at Carlow in 1821, he entered Trinity at the age of seventeen, and won his fellowship in the same year as his B A (1844). He was ordained in 1847. His earliest scientific interest was in mathematical physics, in which subject he published a number of papers. Geology also occupied his early attention, and in 1851 he was appointed Professor of Geology in Dublin University. This chair he held till 1881, when he resigned on being co-opted a Senior Fellow. His papers on geological subjects are many and important. His studies on fossils having led him to desire a closer acquaintance with anatomy, he entered the University Medical School as an ordinary student at the age of thirty- eight, passed through the fu course, and graduated in medicine in 1862. This led him to a study of muscular action, finally resulting in his book Principles of Animal Mechanics (1873). In this work his sustained opposition to the doctrine of evolution, which was probably largely due to his religious views, is much in evidence. His latest researches were in the field of chemistry.
He was specially interested in the work of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, being elected to the Council in 1860, and becoming President in 1883. The " Houghton House " there, which contains the restaurant and office, was built to commemorate his work. Several books came from his pen and in conjunction with his colleague Rev. Joseph Galbraith he produced a well-known series of scientific textbooks. The list of his published papers, 206 in number, in the Royal Society Catalogue bear eloquent testimony to his scientific activity. But that supplies only a partial picture of his life. The enthusiastic and laborious work that he carried out in connection with institutions and schemes in which he was interested aided immensely the cause of science in Ireland; and his personal charm and bright wit live in the memories of those who were privileged to know him. He was President of the Royal Irish Academy (1886-1891) and received honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford (D.C.L.), Cambridge (LL.D., M.D.), Edinburgh (LL.D.), and Bologna (M.D.) and in 1848 the Cunningham Medal of the Royal Irish Academy.

Proc. Roy. Soc., 62, xxix-xxxvii. Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. 1, 398-400. Irish Nat., 7. 1-3, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Henry Hayden was born at Londonderry and educated in Natal and then in Trinity College, Dublin, where he took an Engineering degree. He joined the Geological Survey of India in 1895, and was Director from 1910 till 1920. Hayden did fine work in disentangling the very complicated geology of the Himalayan and Tibetan region; at the age of 58 he was killed along with his two guides in an alpine accident following a successful ascent of the Finsteraarhorn. He was elected F.A.S. in 1915 and knighted in 1920; and was an honorary D.Sc. of Calcutta University.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 80, (Proc.), liii. Who was Who, 1916-1928.

ft. 1620?-1662?
Heaton is usually set down as the source of the earliest records of Irish 'lowering plants, which appeared in William How's Phytologia Britannica, 1650. He was a Dublin clergyman, later Dean of Clonfert, who explored not only the country near at hand, but pushed his researches as far west as Galway; he found for the first time in Ireland such rarities as Dryas octopetala, Gentian, Pyrota rotundifolia, Scilla verna. But his collecting appears to have been strictly limited.

Colgan: Flora of the County Dublin, xix, 1904. Britten & Boulger, ed. Z 143.

Hennedy was born at Carrickfergus, and after being a designer for calico-printing he became in 1857 Professor of Botany at the Andersonian University of Glasgow, which post he occupied until his death. He published a Clydesdale Flora which ran through four editions. W. H. Harvey named the genus Hennedya after him.

Dict. Nat. Biogr. 25, 422. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 145.

21/1/1857 to 1930
Augustine Henry, MA. of the Royal University of Ireland and of Cambridge, was born at Cookstown, Co. Tyrone. He joined the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs in 1882, and, becoming interested in botany, sent home large collections of plants, containing a great number of new species. Coming back in 1900 he studied forestry at Nancy and travelled extensively in Europe, north Africa and the United States, collecting and studying trees. He became Reader in Forestry at Cambridge in 1907 and Professor of Forestry in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, in 1913. His most important work was The Trees of Great Britain and Ireland, in conjunction with H. J. Elwes, and he published many papers and solved many problems connected with our cultivated trees.

F. W. Moore in Journ. Roy. Hon. Soc., 67, part 1. Who was Who, 1929-1940.

Personal knowledge.

Hewitt was born at Crossgar, Co. Down. He passed through the Royal College of Science in Dublin, obtained a research assistantship in agricultural zoology, and set himself to solve the difficult problem of the life-history of the Ox Warble-fly. This he accomplished with distinction, and he passed on to other studies in economic zoology, which were-cut short by his untimely death. In the notice mentioned below his colleague Carpenter pays tribute to the excellence of his work.

Carpenter in Irish Nat., 24, 77, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Born at Ballyporeen, Co. Tipperary, he became Lecturer and then Professor of Botany in Trinity College, Dublin, 1773-1805, and Regius Professor of Physick there, 1781-1830. He had a large herbarium presented to him by Patrick Browne (q.v.)

Notes from The Bot. School, Trinity College ,Dublin,1,3. Kirkpatrick: History of the Medical School in Trinity College, Dublin, 164. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 148.

J: de W. HINCH
John de Witt Hinch, son of a Dublin book-seller, entered the service of the National Library of Ireland as a boy attendant in 1890. His interest in geology and the publication of several papers on glacial deposits led to his appointment on the staff of the Geological Survey in 1919, first as Superintendent of Maps and Collections, then as Geologist (1921). His work, dealing mostly with the drifts, will be found enshrined in the Survey Memoirs and in the Irish Naturalist. He was elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy in 1924.

Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 212. Personal knowledge.

T. D. Hincks was born in Dublin and became Unitarian minister at Cork, and Secretary to the Cork Institution. He wrote apaper " On early Contributions to the Flora of Ireland " (Ann. Nat. Hist, 6). He was an LL.D. of Glasgow University (1834). His daughter Hannah Hincks, who lived in Belfast, was an algologist, and a contributor to Dickie's Flora of Ulster. His son, Rev. William Hincks, born in Cork, became Professor of Natural History at Cork in 1849, and at Toronto in 1854, and prepared a monograph of Oenothera. William's son, Rev. Thomas Hincks, born at Exeter, educated at Belfast, was Unitarian minister in turn at Cork, Dublin, and four towns in England. He was B.A. of London and F.R.S. (1872). He wrote important zoological treatises on Hydroids and Polyzoa.

Dict. Nat Biogr., 26, 441. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 149.

Rev. William Marsden Hind, born near Belfast, took the degrees of B.A. and LL.D. at Dublin University and, entering the Church, resided in Co. Antrim (curacy of Derriaghy) before migrating to England in 1861. He was one of the more productive of the band of botanists, including J. L. Drummond, W. H. Ferguson, J. S. Holden, G. C. Hyndman, Dr. Mateer, W. Millen, Rev. W. T. When, W. Whitla, who lived in or near Belfast about the middle of the 19th century. While in Ireland, he contributed to The Phytologist (yob 2-4), Tate's Flora Belfastiensis (1863) and Cybele Hibernia, (1866). His subsequent Flora of Suffolk (1889) is a well-known book. His herbarium is in Trinity College, Dublin.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 149.

Rev. Arthur Riky Hogan, M.A. (Dublin 1858), was a zoologist, and published, mainly in the Natural History Review, papers and notes on invertebrates, including Crustacea, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, etc., and on meteorology, 1853-61, the most important being on Coleoptera found in the neighbourhood of Dublin, and Catalogue of Irish Microlepidoptera (Zoologist, 11-12, and Nat. Hist. Rev., 1). He was an editor (with W. H. Harvey, S. Haughton, and E. P. Wright) of the Natural History Review, 1858-59 (and perhaps longer) and was an Honorary Member of the Oxford Entomological Society. He became vicar of Watlington, Oxfordshire.

Roy. Soc. Cal. Sel. Papers, 3.

Edward William Lyons Holt was born in London and educated at Eton. He entered the army arid served through the Nile campaign (1884-5) and the Burmese campaign of 1886-7. Invalided home, he took up the study of biology and became assistant to the Professor of Zoology at St. Andrews, where he commenced his long-continued work at fishes. In 1890 he was appointed Assistant Naturalist on the Royal Dublin Society's survey of the fishing-grounds of the west coast of Ireland, and published valuable papers on the eggs and larvae of species obtained, and with W. L. Caldetwood on the rarer fishes, especially the remarkable species of the deeper waters. After some years of laboratory work, chiefly icthyological, at Grimsby, Marseilles and Plymouth, Holt returned to Ireland in 1898 to take charge of the marine laboratory then started by the Royal Dublin Society, and when two years later the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction was founded, the laboratory and its staff were taken over, and Holt was appointed Scientific Adviser to the Fisheries Branch, and subsequently Inspector of Fisheries, and in 1914 Chief Inspector. He did important organizing in bringing Irish investigations into line with those of other countries, and in giving Ireland an international standing in marine research. Under him the dry official reports of the Department became enlarged into a series of valuable zoological memoirs—unfortunately abandoned in the stress of modern days. Holt had a much wider knowledge of marine animals than the above account might convey. ' He was familiar with all the common forms of almost every group of invertebrates, and had made a special study of the Schizopoda, while his knowledge of British fishes in all their aspects was probably unsurpassed."

Irish Nat., 31 497, portrait. Personal knowledge.

" John Hood was a metal-turner by trade and a naturalist by nature." He was born at Dundee, and proved one of that select band, less rare in Scotland than in Ireland, a workingman naturalist. He spent the greater part of his life in a foundry at Dundee, but employed his scanty leisure to such advantage that with the aid of a microscope chiefly homemade he discovered a great number of new Rotifera and other minute forms of life. The connection of this remarkable man with Ireland is due to the fact that a son of his, a watchmaker, settled in Westport in Mayo, where his father paid him several brief visits (1889-1894); his Irish collectings very materially enhanced the previous knowledge of Irish Rotifera. Fortunately he published his Irish finds fully in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy; this was much his most important paper.

D. Peacock in Scots Magazine, 1939, 409-418, portrait. Proc. R.I.Acad., 19, 664, 2 plates. Nature, 93, 589.

Rev. Dr. Hort, an eminent divine, was born in Dublin, educated at Rugby and Cambridge, and became rector of St. Ippolyts at Hitchin (1857-1872). He held the degrees of M.A. and D.D. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Dublin), D.C.L. (Durham). Hort had a critical knowledge of Rubi, and named a new British species (R. itubricatits Hort).

Dict. Nat. Biogr. Suppl. 4, ii, 443. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 155. Life and Letters, by his son, A. F. Hon, 1896 (portrait).

Edward Hull, KA., LL.D., was born at Antrim, where his father was curate. Destined at first for the Church, and then for engineering, he was recommended by Thomas Oldham to De la Beche for the Geological Survey, and worked first in North Wales with J. Beete Jukes. On the death of Jukes in 1869 he was appointed Director of the Irish branch of the Survey and at the same time Professor of Geology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland, which posts he held until his retirement in 1890. During this period he gained his F.R.S., investigated the geology of Sinai and Palestine for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and then and later published several books of importance and a large number of scientific papers. Before he retired he had the satisfaction of seeing the completion of the one-inch geological maps of Ireland and accompanying Memoirs. He took a keen interest in glacial problems, but in accordance with accepts{views he regarded the drift deposits as aqueous rather than as directly due to the melting of stagnant land ice. Among his publications his Reminiscences of a Strenuous Life (1910) published when he was eighty years of age, gives an agreeable picture of scientific society in Dublin during the period of his sojourn there.

Proc. Roy. Soc., 90, xxviii-xxxvi, portrait. Irish Nat, 27, 17, Portrait. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 74, Proc., liv.

b. 1886
G. R. Humphreys was born in Anglesey and, entering the service of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, has resided in Ireland since 1904. He is a devotee of ornithology, and a contributor to British Bids, Irish Naturalist and Irish Naturalists' Journal, and during 1928-1933 continued EL M. Barrington's investigations into the migration of birds at Irish light-stations, under grants from the Royal Irish Academy. He edited the fifth (1937) edition of the National Museum List of Irish Birds, originally compiled by A. G. More.

Personal knowledge.

fl. 1843
J. D. Humphreys, who was, I understand, engaged in business in Cork, was responsible for the lists of " Mollusca, Crustacea and Echinodermata " which occupy twenty-eight pages of Harvey, Humphreys and Power s Contributions towards a Fauna and Flora of the County of Cork (1845), compiled on the occasion of the visit to Cork of the British Association in 1843, and published by the Cuvierian Society there. It appears from his preface that he was a collector of the Mollusca. He acted as Librarian to the Royal Cork Institution.107

Miss Hutchins, born at Ballylicky in Co. Cork, was a botanist of great promise, who lived at Bantry and died at the age of thirty. She was a disciple of Whitley Stokes and a friend of Dawson Turner, to whom she transmitted most of her findings, for she did not herself publish anything. Several lichens and alga, named after her, perpetuate her memory, also the cruciferous genus Hutchinsia of Robert Brown. Lett's notice of her quoted below does justice to her great qualities.

Knowles in Proc. A.I. Acad., 3813, 182. Lea in Prot R.I. Acad., 32 B, 70. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 161.

Mitchell, M. E. (1999) Early observations on the Flora of the southwest of Ireland. Selected letters of Ellen Hutchins and Dawson Tuner 1807 - 1814. Occasional papers, National Botanic Gardens, pp.124.

George Crawford Hyndman was a Belfast auctioneer who from early life took a deep and practical interest in local natural history, especially marine zoology. He was a leading member of the Belfast Dredging Committee, the reports of whose work were presented by him to the British Association in 1857, 1858 and 1859, and to the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society in 1860. The marine mollusca were his special study, and he advanced materially the knowledge of their occurrence and distribution in the Belfast area. He was a field botanist also, as shown by the frequency by which his name occurs in Dickie's Flora of Ulster.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Stir. Centenary Volume, 86, portrait. 1924. Belfast Literary Soc. Historical Sketches, 76. 1902. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2.

Henry Lyster Jameson was born in Louth, where his father was rector of Killencoole. He developed early a taste for zoology, and contributed notes on birds to the first volume of the Irish Naturalist (1892) when he was seventeen. His subsequent papers on Irish bats are well known to readers of that magazine. He accompanied Martel, the French cave-explorer, when he visited Ireland, and studied the cave insects. Having taken his degree in Dublin, he continued his studies in London and Heidelberg. He accompanied Prof. Herdman of Liverpool to Ceylon to investigate the pearl-oyster fisheries, and established the parasitic theory of pearl formation. Poor health compelled him to remain abroad, and he worked under the educational authorities in the Transvaal and later at home. He obtained an Inspectorship of Fisheries in England, but died prematurely while adviser on Inshore Fisheries to the Development Commission.

Irish Nat., 31, 49. Personal knowledge.

b. 1884
Dr. Jessen was born in Copenhagen, took the Phil.D. degree at the university there, and was botanist to the Danish Geological Survey, 1914-1931. In the latter year he succeeded Ostenfeld as Professor of Botany in Copenhagen University and Director of the Botanic Garden, which posts he still holds. He has specialized in the flora of glacial and post-glacial times, and in several visits to Ireland (1934-1949), working with G. F. Mitchell and others, he has thrown much light on the flora of Ireland during these periods. He received in 1947 the Sc.D. degree from Dublin University.

Personal knowledge.

b. 1863 - 9 Sept 1954-
Thomas Johnson, D.Sc., was born at Barton-on-Humber, and educated at the Royal College of Science in London. He came to Ireland in 1890 as Professor of Botany in the Royal College of Science for Ireland and when that institution was incorporated in University College in 1925 retained his position until 1928. He was in addition for some years Keeper of the Botanical Collections in the National Museum and Director of the Seed-testing Station of the Department of Agriculture. He has published many papers on Irish seaweeds, fossil plants (of Irish Eocene and other deposits), plant-diseases, etc.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

Rev. William Frederick Johnson, M.A. (Dublin, 1880) was a naturalist from boyhood until his death. He was born at Travancore, where his father was in the service of the Church Missionary Society, educated in England and Ireland, and took Holy Orders. He held posts in Armagh in connection with the Royal School and the cathedral, and after fifteen years moved to Poyntzpass and thence to Castlebellingham where he retired from the Church and lived at several places in Co. Down. Wherever he went he collected insects, particularly Hymenoptera and Hemiptera. Holidays spent in Donegal or Sligo added much material. It was fortunate that he preserved his specimens (now in the National Museum), for his eye was scarcely sufficiently critical for the discrimination of some of the more difficult species which were included in his many papers and notes. He had a wide acquaintance with a number of groups of insects, as well as with flowering plants. His largest work was his List of the Beetles of Ireland Proc. R.I. Acad., 22, 535-827, written in conjunction with. J. N. Halbert. " When it comes to be considered that Johnson worked practically alone, far from any reference library or named collections, his work amongst the Irish insects will always stand out as a remarkable achievement." He found the long-lost Dyschirius obscurus at Lough Neagh, and added the attractive Bembidium argenteolum to the British list.

Ent. Monthly Mag., 70, 164. Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 90, portrait. Personal knowledge.

The name of John Joly, for 37 years Professor of Geology in Dublin University, is well known for his work in many physical and geological fields – thermal cycles in the Earth's history, pleochroic haloes in rocks, age of the Earth as determined by the amount of salt in the sea, the meldometer, apophorometer and steam calorimeter, colour-photography, and (with Dixon) ascent of sap in plants.
He was elected F.R.S. at the age of 35, and held many other honours. Born in Offaly, he had Irish, French, German, Italian and Greek blood in his veins. Among local honours, he was President and Boyle Medallist of the Royal Dublin Society.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 90 (Proc.), Iv. Personal knowledge.

Admiral Jones, who was born in Dublin, did good work at Irish lichens when that large group of plants was still but little known, publishing his results with the Natural History Society of Dublin. He was born and died in Dublin, was M.P. for Londonderry, and a Fellow of the Linnean Society. His large collection of Irish, British and European lichens is preserved in the Irish National Museum. David Moore wrote of him – "No one since the days of Dr. Taylor of Kenmare and John Templeton of Cranmore, Belfast, has studied the lichens with more enthusiasm and diligence." Jones pursued also other branches of study, and formed "a large and fine collection of fish remains from the Carboniferous limestone of Ireland."

Quart.Journ. Geol. Soc, 24 (Proc.) 39. Knowles in Proc. R.I.Acad., 38 B, 185. 1929. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 169.

Plate 18 The connection of Jukes with Ireland is that after geological work in Newfoundland, Australia and Wales he became Director of the Irish Geological Survey, 1850-1869. He was a Birmingham man, with a Cambridge education (M.A., 1841), and it was Sedgwick's lectures that led him to take up geology as a profession. In Ireland he worked assiduously both in the field and in the study, and published many books and papers, combining with his Survey post the work of Professor of Geology first at the Royal Dublin Society and Museum of Irish Industry', and then with the Royal College of Science. "As a field-geologist Jukes had few equals; he had an exceptional facility for grasping the structure of a district, and of quickly explaining what had puzzled his assistants." He died in Dublin in his 58th year. He was elected F.R.S. in 1853.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 30, 224. Quart. Journ Geol. Soc., 26 (Proc.), xxxii. Flett. First Hundred Years of the Geological Survey, 251,274. Jukes: Letters and Extracts ... edited by Mrs. C. A. Broome. 1871.

LADY KANE (née Katherine Sophia Baily)
Believed to be the authoress of The Irish Flora, published anonymously in 1833. She became the wife of Sir Robert John Kane, M.D. (infra), an important figure in Irish science and economics, and author of The Industrial Resources of Ireland (1844). The Irish Flora is a modest and accurate book; the localities for plants were supplied by John White, assistant gardener at Glasnevin Botanic Garden, and author of An Essay on the Indigenous Grasses of Ireland (1808).

Colgan: Flora of the County Dublin, xxvii. Dict. Nat. Biogr., 30, 248.

Sir Robert Kane's main interest is displayed in his still well-known book The Industrial Resources of Ireland (1844). He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and studied medicine there and chemistry in Paris. After holding several teaching posts in Dublin he became President of Queen's College, Cork (1845) and Vice-Chancellor of the Royal University of Ireland (1880). He suggested to the Government the founding of the Museum of Irish Industry, and became its first Director. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1844, and received its Royal Medal; was knighted in 1846; became President of the Royal Irish Academy in 1877, and received the LL.D. degree from his old University. Though in his Industrial Resources he deals with economic matters, it is in many ways a landmark in the progress of Irish natural science. His chemical researches and books brought him a European reputation.

Proc. Roy. Soc. 47, v-xviii. Wheeler and others: The Natural Resources of Ireland series of discourses delivered before the Royal Dublin Society . . . Dublin, 1944. Dict, Nat. Biogr. 30, 238.

Sprung of an Irish-English-French stock, De Vismes Kane was born in Devon, but came to Ireland to take degrees in Arts and Engineering in Dublin University, and to settle at Drumreaske House, Monaghan, near the family property. An affection of the throat caused him to reside in France, Italy or Switzerland for three years, but in 1879 he returned permanently to Ireland and resumed there his continental study of Lepidoptera; to that group he devoted much of his life. He became the first authority on the Irish butterflies, publishing in 1893-1901 in the Entomologist his well-known "Catalogue," still the main work of reference for this group. In 1904 he presented his great collection of Lepidoptera to the National Museum, and concentrated on the smaller Crustacea of fresh water, in which group he made noteworthy discoveries. His interests extended far beyond the two groups mentioned, as will he seen from the list of his more important writings in the notice of him in the Irish Naturalist (infra). He was a participator in several expeditions organized to explore land or sea in or around Ireland for zoological purposes, did collecting in many parts of the country, and made a special study of the great prehistoric earth-work, the old frontier of Ulster, which is known as " the Black Pig's Dyke."

Entomologist, 51, 289. Entomological Monthly Mag., 54, 254. Irish Nat., 27, 97, portrait. Personal knowledge.

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin of Largs, was born at Belfast, which is the reason for introducing his name; for his work is quite too famous to require notice in this place. His father, James Thomson, a Scotchman, was mathematical master in the Royal Academical Institution in Belfast, and afterwards Professor of Mathematics at Glasgow University. To Scotland, not to Ireland belongs the honour of having produced Lord Kelvin.

Silvanus P. Thompson: Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs. Vol. I-II 19W. Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. 2, 508.

1882-1945 S. W. Kemp was educated at St. Pads School, London, and Trinity College, Dublin, where he obtained the Sc.D. degree. He became Assistant Naturalist to the Irish Fisheries Branch in 1903 and remained there for seven years. Then he went to the Calcutta Museum to return to England (Colonial Office) as Director of Research to the "Discovery" Committee; and in 1936 became Director of the Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association. He was elected F.A.S. in 1931. In Ireland his research work was mainly on the Echinodermata and Crustacea obtained during the dredgings of the Fisheries cruiser off the west coast, and published in the official Journal of the Fisheries Branch.

Obit. Notices Roy. Soc., 5, 447, portrait, bibliography. Personal knowledge.

b. 1881
The Very Rev. P. G. Kennedy, S.J., was born at Inch-Sr. Lawrence in 1881, and educated at Limerick and Stonyhurst. For four years (1903-1906) he studied theology in Dublin, and after some years of science teaching in Limerick came to Belvedere College, Dublin, as Senior Classical Master. He is an expert ornithologist, and is contributing material to the projected book on the Irish avifauna, being one of those engaged in its compilation. He is a leading member of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club (President, 1940-1941) and has lectured and written much on his chosen subject.

Personal knowledge.

1681 ?-1754
John Keogh or K'Eogh the younger entered the Church; he was chaplain to Lord Kingston, and subsequently held the living of Mitchelstown in County Cork. He wrote Botanologia Universalis Hibernica (Cork, 1735)1 and Zoologia Medicinalis Hibernica (Dublin, 1739). As was the mode at the time, these books are entirely medical in character, the first being of the usual herbal type.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 31, 33. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 172. Webb: Compend. Irish Biog, 272.

J. R. Kilroe, born in 1848, became Assistant Geologist on the Irish Geological Survey in 1874, and Geologist in 1890. He took a large share in the routine mapping of Ireland, including the Drift Survey, and retired in 1913. His name is outstanding among those of many colleagues on account of his Description of the Soil-geology of Ireland, published officially in 1907, a work which deals fully with the subject, and was the first book to give a general and reasoned account of that branch of Irish geology which is all-important in agriculture.

Flett. First Hundred Years of the Geological Survey, 251. Personal knowledge.

George Henry Kinahan, geologist, belonged to a well-known Irish family. He took his Diploma in Engineering in Dublin University and in the following year (1854) was appointed to the Geological Survey, in which service he spent his life. His duties in mapping or re-mapping carried him to almost every part of Ireland, giving him an encyclopaedic knowledge of the country and its geology. He was a man of fine physique and of boundless energy, physical and intellectual. The country folk knew him as " the big miner," and in scientific circles his numerous books and papers form a highly important contribution to Irish geology. " He was the last survivor of that band of enthusiastic Irish geologists, which numbered among its ranks Griffith, Jukes, Mallet, Naughton, Close, and other notable men, whose brilliant discourses attracted crowded audiences to the theatre of the Engineering School in Trinity College in the flourishing days of the Dublin Geological Society." It was fitting that his body should be borne to his grave at Ovoca by a squad of the miners employed there.

Irish Nat. 18, 29. portrait Personal knowledge.

J.R. Kinahan was born in Dublin, and was the brother of G. H. Kinahan of the Irish Geological Survey. He obtained the M.D. degree at Dublin University, lectured under the Science and Art Department on botany and zoology, was Secretary of the Natural History Society of Dublin. He wrote extensively, largely on local botany, geology and zoology, being especially interested in native ferns; and was a leading figure in Dublin scientific life.

Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Dublin 4, part 1, 33. 1864. Britten & Boulger; ed. 2,173.

J. J. F. X. KING
James Joseph Francis Xavier King lived in Glasgow, where he held the Professorship of Art in the University. He was also an entomologist, a student of the Neuroptera, and visited Ireland on several occasions in order to collect these insects. He published "A Contribution towards a Catalogue of the Neuropterous Fauna of Ireland" (Glasgow, 1889), and in association with J. N. Halbert "A List of the Neuroptera of Ireland " (Proc. R.I. Acad., 28 B, 29-110, 1910). To these two papers we owe much of our knowledge of the Order.

Entom. Monthly Mag., 45, 166.

6/7/1893 – 28/3/1978
Prominent in the Dublin Naturalists field Club, and served as President. She collected mosses from all over Ireland, and donated 4,000 specimens to the National Herbarium. She added several species to the Irish Flora. She was elected an honorary member of the British Bryological Society.

William Forskell Kirby was born at Leicester. He was an entomologist, and worked as Assistant Naturalist in the Royal Dublin Society's Museum (now National Museum) for twelve years until in 1879 he was appointed to the British Museum (Natural History), where he remained till 1909. His Manual of European Butterflies (1862) is an important book, and he contributed many papers to the Transactions of the Entomological Society and other publications, and wrote books on other subjects.

Entomologist, 45, 351.

1864 - 1933
Miss Matilda Cullen Knowles was born at Ballymena in Antrim, and developed an early interest in flowering plants, at which she and the writer worked together in Ulster in the 'eighties and 'nineties of last century. She then attended science courses in the Royal College of Science for Ireland, and became in 1907 a "Temporary" Assistant in the herbarium of the Science and Art (now National) Museum, where she remained till her retirement twenty-six years later, being in charge of the botanical collections for the last ten years (1923-), following the retirement of Prof. T. Johnson. The phanerogams were her study until 1909, when her association with Miss Lorrain Smith on the Clare Island Survey caused her to attack vigorously the large group of lichens which hitherto, though collected by many able workers, had not been subjected to topographical or ecological study. During the remaining portion of her life, lichens occupied first place, her crowning work being "The Lichens of Ireland" (Proc. R.I. Acad., 1929), which detailed the distribution of over 800 species. " Miss Knowles' study represents one of the finest pieces of work ever carried out in any section of the Irish flora." She left behind a large quantity of additional notes on lichens, which has now (1948) been published by Mrs. Lilian Porter (Proc. R.I. Acad., 51 B, no. 22).

Irish Nat. Journ. 4, 191, portrait. Personal knowledge.