Botanical Resources


Flora of Ireland


Threatened Plants



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R. Lloyd Praeger, Sc.D., D.Sc., M.R.I.A.
W.Tempest, Dundalgan Press, Dundalk, 1949


d. 1882
Andrew Leith Adams, M.A., belonged to a Scottish family. He became an army surgeon. Retiring in 1873, he was appointed Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science in Dublin, and in 1878 Professor of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork. He was elected F.R.S. in 1872. He early became interested in fossil mammals, and getting in touch with R. J. Ussher and G. H. Kinahan, published, partly in conjunction with them, a number of valuable papers on the Quaternary mammals of Ireland. His largest scientific work was his Monograph of the British Fossil Elephants (Paleontolog. Soc., 1877-81). Other books dealt with the natural history of India, Egypt, Malta and Canada.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 1, 94. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 49 (Proc.), 39.

"Migration of Birds" in Science for all ed. By Robert Brown FLS FRGS ca. late 1800s

b. 1872 (20/1/1872 – 9/2/1948)
John Adams is an Antrim man, born near Ballymena. He studied at Queen's College, Belfast, and St. John's College, Cambridge, taking the M.A. degree. In Dublin he held botanical teaching posts in the Royal College of Science for Ireland and elsewhere. He then went to Canada as Assistant Dominion Botanist, from which position he has now retired. He wrote A Student's Illustrated Irish Flora (1931) and several books on Canadian and general botany; also papers, published by the Royal Irish Academy, giving a census of Irish Algae, Lichens, and (with G. H. Pethybridge) Fungi; other papers, in the Irish Naturalist, dealt with the longevity of seeds, etc.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

N. H. Alcock was a Dublin man, and graduated (B.A., M.D.) with high honours in the University of his native city. He studied in Germany, taught in the Medical Schools of Manchester, Dublin, and elsewhere, and in 1911 was appointed to the Chair of Physiology in McGill University, Montreal, at which place he died. While in Ireland he did useful and interesting work in zoology, and alone or in collaboration with C. B. Moffat published in the Irish Naturalist a series of papers on the habits of native bats, which greatly extended our knowledge concerning these remarkable mammalia. Elsewhere appeared important papers on the nervous system.

Irish Nat., 22, 144. Who was Who, 1897-1916. Personal Knowledge.

Alexander was a Cork-man, and a surgeon in the navy. He made a contribution "Fungi of Cloyne" to the Phytologist (4, 727), and collected a good deal in China and Loochoo. His name appears as "H.J.A." in Power's Botanists' Guide for the County of Cork and as "T. Anderson" in the Journal of Botany, 1848.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 4.

d. ? 1909
Allin was born at Midleton, Co. Cork. He took the B.D. degree at Dublin University in 1859, and, entering the church, held curacies in turn in Counties Galway, Carlow and Cork between 1864 and 1877; subsequently he lived at Weston-super-Mare. Allin contributed notes on the plants mainly of County Cork to the Journal of Botany, 1871-1874, and in 1883 issued a little book The Flowering Plants and Ferns of the County Cork, published at Weston-super-Mare. His botanical contributions show that he was an active and accurate observer

Cybele Hibernica, ed. 2, xix. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 5.

G. J. Allman was born at Cork, educated at Belfast, and took his B.A. and M.D. degrees in Dublin in 1844. He turned from the Bar and from medicine to study natural science, and devoted his life to researches on marine invertebrates, notably the Coelenterata and Polyzoa; his papers and reports on these (as in the "Challenger" series) are of first importance, and especially his monographs on the gymnoblastic hydroids and on the fresh-water Polyzoa. He was appointed Professor of Botany in Dublin University in 1844, in succession to his father William Allman (q.v.) and in 1856 became Regius Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh, from which post he retired in 1870 to live at Weybridge, where he died. He was elected F.R.S. in 1854, and was President of the Linnean Society (1874-1881) and of the British Association (1879); he received the Cunningham Medal of the Royal Irish Academy in 1878.
He discovered the Spotted Slug of Kerry, Geomalacus maculosus, elsewhere found only in the IberianPeninsula.

Proc. Roy. Soc., 75 (obit.), 25-27. Dict. Nat. Biogr. Suppl. I, 40. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 5.

Born in Jamaica of a Waterford mother, his parents removed to Ireland in 1780, and their son graduated M.A. and M.D. in Dublin University. He practised medicine at Clonmel, and was in 1809 appointed Professor of Botany in Dublin University. He was a friend of Robert Brown, and in consequence of this intimacy arranged his lectures in 1812 on the Natural System, being the first professor in the British Isles to do so. He retired in 1844, being succeeded by his son G.J. Allman (q.v.) The genus Allmania (Aramentacae) was named after him by Robert Brown.

Dict. Nat. Biogr. 1, 335. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 5.

Andrews was born at Chichester, but came to Ireland, and was a founder and leading member, and ultimately President, of the Natural History Society of Dublin. He was interested in both zoology and botany, and his best discovery was the now famous Spotted Slug of Kerry, Geomalacus maculosus, elsewhere found only in the Peninsula [this is probably an error: see G.J.Allman]. Among plants he claimed to have discovered in Kerry Saxifraga andrewsii, which was named after him; but that plant is known to be a garden hybrid, with one of the S. aizoon group, unknown as natives of Ireland, as one of its parents. T. H. Corry has given expression (Journ. Bot. 21, 181) to the doubts which hang over this and others of his records. He was especially interested in Irish fishes and filmy ferns.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 1, 409. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 9.

Antisell was born in Dublin. He was Lecturer in botany in the School of Medicine in Peter-street, and published a Manual of Agricultural Chemistry in 1845, and Outlines of Irish Geology in 1846. Politically he was a prominent Young Irelander, on which account presumably he emigrated to America after 1848, to become Government Geologist for California and Arizona and to fill other scientific posts, and to publish many papers.

Irish Book-lover, 6, 102, 118. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 8.

William Archer was the eldest son of Rev. Richard Archer, belonging to an old Wexford family. His early attraction to natural history, and especially to minute and obscure forms of animal and vegetable life, was shown by his association from youth with Eugene O'Meara, E. P. Wright, W. Frazer, and George Porte. They founded in 1849 the Dublin Microscopical Club (q.v.), composed of twelve members, who met monthly for the exhibition and demonstration of objects suitable for study. From 1864 the proceedings of the Club were reported in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, and many of Archer's remarkable discoveries were published there, relating to Protozoa, desmids, and other groups. Many valuable contributions appeared in the Proceedings of the Natural. History Society of Dublin, of which he was a leading member. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1875 without candidature or knowledge on his part, the application and usual expenses being made and met by personal friends in testimony of their esteem for him. In 1876 he forsook his previous business activities, connected with mining enterprises in Ireland, to undertake the duties of Librarian to the Royal Dublin Society; most of the valuable collection of books then stored in Leinster House became, in 1877, the nucleus on which the extensive collections in the National Library of Ireland were built up; Archer was its first Librarian. He retired in 1895. "Archer's scientific skill, knowledge and capacity were, according to the testimony of competent judges, out of all proportion to his public reputation. He was not only an indefatigable worker, but possessed in a marked degree that scientific imagination which is essential to the highest results in research."

Proc. Roy. Soc., 62, Dict. Nat: Biogr., Suppl. I, 57. Irish Nat., 6, 253, portrait. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 9. Personal knowledge.

Augustin is to be reckoned as the first Irish naturalist. He wrote, in the year 655, a remarkable book, Liber de mirabilibus Sanctae Scripturae. This work was for long attributed to St. Augustine of Hippo, and to this fortunate error its preservation is due, as it became included in St. Augustine's writings, and forms an Appendix to vol. III of his collected works, 1837. Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus both knew that his style was different from St. Augustine's, and the Benedictine editors said that the author "videtur se gente Anglum sive Hibernum indicare"; it was left to Bishop Reeves to give final proof of his Irish nationality. But who he was or where he was domiciled is not known. His book deals with natural phenomena from a standpoint singularly modern - tides, changes in the distribution of land and sea, island faunas, etc.; and as Sir D'Arcy Thompson has written, many of his arguments might have been put forward by Darwin or Edward Forbes or Lyell. Augustin lived twelve hundred years before his time. To the zoologist, the list he gives of Irish wild animals is of much interest.

Reeves in Proc. R.I. Acad., 7, 514. Scharff in Irish Nat., 30, 128 (1921). D'Arcy W. Thompson in Hermathena, no. 45. 1945.

The name of Charles Cardale Babington, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Botany at Cambridge, 1861-1895, has an Irish connection not so much on account of certain field-work done in that country as by reason of his paper "Hints towards a Cybele Hibernica," read before the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association in 1859. In this he put forward a proposed division of Ireland for biological purposes into twelve "districts" - a plan adopted in both editions of Cybele Hibernica and in some subsequent publications. He was interested in the distribution of. Irish plants, and refers to them in thirty different papers.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. I, 90. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 12.


Baily was born at Bristol, and became Assistant Curator of the Museum there in 1837. In 1857 after some years of service as draughtsman and Assistant Geologist on the English survey, he came to Dublin as Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of Ireland, and worked in that capacity until his death. He was an excellent draughtsman and lithographer, and his hundreds of artistic and accurate figures of fossils have helped greatly the study of bygone forms of life.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 45 (Proc.), 39. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 14.

b. 1874
William Alexander Francis Balfour-Browne, M.A., was born in London, took his M.A. degree at Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1898, but returned to Oxford to study zoology. After several years work in marine laboratories he came to Belfast in 1906 as Naturalist to the Ulster Fisheries and Biology Association and Assistant in Biology in Queen's College, and afterwards Lecturer in Botany in Queen's University; subsequently he held zoological posts at Cambridge and the Imperial College of Science. He has written many books and papers on insects, and while in Belfast and subsequently he specialized on the water-beetles.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

Miss Ball belonged to Youghal. She studied seaweeds, assisted W. H. Harvey in his Phycologia Britannica, and sent Algae to the herbarium of Dublin University. Harvey dedicated the genus Ballia to her in 1840. She was a sister of Robert Ball, q.v.

Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 17. Renouf in Irish Nat. Journ., 3, 238.

John Ball, LL.D., F.R.S., naturalist, politician, alpine climber, was born in Dublin, son of a judge in the Court of Common Pleas. He travelled far, and wrote especially on physical and geographical science and on the flora of the Alps, which mountain-range he knew and loved since childhood. He was the first President of the Alpine Club. He published very little connected with Ireland, where his work was mainly political.

He was no relation of Robert Ball (q.v.) or of the Balls of Youghal.

Proc. Roy. Soc., 47, v-ix. Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. I, 115. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 17. Rev. W. Ball-Wright in Ball Family Records. 1908.

J. Botany 27 (1889) 365-370.

Robert Ball was born at Cobh (Queenstown) and rather against his will found himself at the age of 25 in the Under Secretary's Office in Dublin, where he worked until 1852. Once free of official trammels he devoted himself with vigour to natural history, living in Dublin, taking a leading part in the work of the scientific societies there, and maintaining an active correspondence with Edward Forbes, William Thompson, Robert Patterson. He was appointed Director of the Museum in Trinity College in 1844, and presented to that institution his valuable natural history collections, mainly Irish; Dublin University conferred on him the degree of LL.D. He became Secretary of the Queen's University of Ireland in 1851, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society. To manyy people the name of his eldest son, Sir Robert Ball, Astronomer Royal, is more familiar than his own.

Dict. Nat. Biogr. 3, 77. Webb: Compend. Irish Biogr., 7.

Valentine Ball, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., was the second son of Robert Ball, LL.D. (q.v.) and brother of Sir Robert S. Ball, mathematician and Astronomer Royal, and of Sir Charles B. Ball, Bart., M.D. Entering Trinity College, Dublin in 1857, he passed his degree examination in 1864, but did not graduate till 1872, when he took the B.A. and M.A. degrees by accumulation. In the former year he was appointed to the Geological Survey of India, on which he worked, often under arduous conditions, till 1881, his duties being especially concerned with the Indian coal-fields and other economic deposits. He came home to succeed Dr. S. Haughton as Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Dublin. Meanwhile the Government had taken over from the Royal Dublin Society several of its important educational activities and formed them into separate but allied institutions. Its museum became the Science and Art Museum (now National Museum of Ireland), its Library the National Library of Ireland, its Botanic Garden first the Royal and then the National Botanic Garden of Ireland. Ball left his university post to assume in 1883 the directorship of this Froup of cultural centres - the "Science and Art Institutions" as they were called - . his special interest being the Museum, the foundation stone of which had not yet been laid when he was appointed. In the Museum and for the Museum he laboured incessantly for over twelve years, when he had to resign owing to ill-health.

His writings were extensive and varied, extending into many branches of science. The bulk of his work naturally saw the light through the official publications of the Geological Survey of India.

Proc. Roy. Soc., 58, xlvii-xlix. E. P. Wright in Irish Nat., 4, 169, portrait. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 18. Personal knowledge.

Major Gerald Edwin Hamilton Barrett-Hamilton, B.A., author of the great (and unfortunately unfinished) History of British Mammals, was born in India of Irish parents, who returned and settled at Kilmanock in Wexford when the boy was three years old. Before he was ten he had begun taking natural history notes. He went to Harrow, spending summer holidays botanizing at home under the encouragement of A. G. More; passed through Cambridge with distinction, and in 1896-97 was engaged as Commissioner on the British Bering Sea Fur Seal enquiry. After a few years devoted to work on European mammals, he fought through the South African war in the Royal Irish Rifles. The next ten years were devoted to agriculture at home and his book on British mammals. This had reached its 14th part, when he was appointed by the Colonial Office and the Natural History Museum to investigate the indiscriminate slaughter of whales in the Antarctic. He died of pneumonia there, in South Georgia, in 1914.

In his mammal work he was a thorough-going "splitter," recognising minute differences which he considered important, and giving names to all; he did not care whether his splits were called subspecies, races, or phases, but insisted that they required recognition.

A list of his writings is appended to the notice of him in the Irish Naturalist, quoted below.

Irish Nat., 23, 81, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Richard Manliffe Barrington was born at the family residence of Fassaroe, Co. Wicklow. He was a delicate boy, with a strong leaning towards natural science. His earliest published note (Zoologist, 1866), concerned the food of the Wood-pigeon, and from that time until his death he was busy at zoological and to a less extent botanical field-work. He took degrees - M.A., LL.B. - at Dublin University, and was called to the Bar, but preferred the open-air life that he got as a land valuer and farmer. While still an undergraduate he came under the influence of A. G. More, which led to his reports on the flora of Lough Ree, Lough Erne, Ben Bulben, Tory Island, and the Blaskets (all published by the Royal Irish Academy) - work needed for the second edition of Cybele Hibernica, and carried out with scrupulous care. But his main interest, especially in later years, was ornithology, and the work with which his name is especially associated was his marshalling of the Irish lighthouse and lightship keepers into a far-flung body of observers of the innumerable birds which are seen or taken at these favourable points; much of the expense of this elaborate enquiry was borne by Barrington himself. The results were published in the well-known voluminous work The Migration of Birds as observed at Irish Lighthouses and Lightships (1900). Barrington's energy in the domain of ornithology was unbounded; he visited, often more than once, the most remote islands off the western coasts of Ireland and Scotland, and many more distant places. He was one of the leaders of the Rockall expedition of 1896. Incidentally, his bird enquiries led to the amassing of a great collection of specimens (wing and leg) of birds sent up by the light-keepers, including a large number of unique Irish occurrences; this collection is now in the National Museum.

He was keenly interested also in the native mammals; in agriculture he farmed a large area at Fassaroe, and indeed worked in every subject relating to Irish science and economics. C. B. Moffat's notice of him quoted below (Irish Nationalist) gives a list of his writings. Of his alpine climbs and other feats of enterprise and endurance this is not the place to write.

Irish Nat., 24, 193. Journ. Bot., 1915, 364, portrait. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 22. Personal knowledge.

fl. 1739-1751
"Richard Barton, B.D., Author of The analogy of Divine wisdom, in the Material, Sensitive, Moral, Civil, and Spiritual System of things," was also the author of "Lectures in natural philosophy, Designed to be a foundation, for reasoning pertinently, upon the petrefactions, gems, crystals, and sanitive quality of Lough Neagh in Ireland; And intended to be An Introduction, to the Natural History of Several Counties contiguous to that lake, Particularly The County of Ardmagh." I transcribe these titles exactly, feeling that they ought to be accompanied by a fanfare of trumpets. But it is to be feared that the reverend gentleman's books, with their resounding descriptions, dedications, addresses, and rather bombastic quasi-scientific contents, failed to impress a thoughtless world, or to elucidate, in the case of the volume concerning Lough Neagh, the puzzling phenomenon of the silicified wood occurring there, to which his attention was specially directed. Save that his father, Rev. John Barton, D.D., Dean of Ardagh, was Vice-Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, little is to be discovered concerning the man himself, who, from the evidence of his works, was curate of Lurgan from 1742 until his death in 1751. But his "Lectures," never delivered but beautifully printed, are a joy in themselves.

Brit. Mus. Cat. of Printed Books. Praeger: A Populous Solitude, chap. v, 1941.

b. 1918
B. P. Beirne was born at Rosslare, Co. Wexford. He entered Trinity College in 1934, and took the degrees of B.Sc. (1938), Ph.D. (1940), M.Sc. and M.A. (1941) in Dublin University, and winning an Overseas Research Scholarship worked at insects in the British Museum. He was appointed Assistant Director of Trinity College Museum in 1940, Assistant in Zoology (1942), and Lecturer in Entomology (1943), has written extensively on entomological subjects in various journals, and has done much work at the Irish Microlepidoptera. In 1929 he left Ireland to take up a post under the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa.

Personal information.

Alfred Bell was born in London, and from 1868 onwards was an industrious worker at the fauna of the Pliocene deposits of England and western Europe. To Ireland he was attracted by the "Manure Gravels" of Wexford, deposits which were known to include certain (derived) Pliocene shells; and he presented four reports to the British Association on these and other east coast post-glacial deposits (1888-1891). He advanced materially our knowledge of the fauna of the times from before till after the Ice Age, publishing in the Reports of the British Association and elsewhere.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 82 (Proc.), lix.

Robert Bell was a notable example of a combination rare in Ireland, which may be described as the working-man naturalist. He was born in Co. Down, and became a rivetter in the ship-building yard of Harland and Wolff, Belfast. From youth he devoted his spare time to mineralogy and palaeontology, acquiring a most intimate knowledge of local rocks and their contents. He did not write of his findings, but his specimens went to many museums and collectors especially in England. Two of the minerals which he found were new, and were named scawtite and larnite from their places of origin, both in Antrim. He was a valued member of the Belfast Field Club, from which he received Honorary Membership and also its Commemoration Medal. He was made a Life Member of the Mineralogical Society of London, and an Honorary Member of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society; and was granted by the Government of Northern Ireland a Civil List Pension in 1930 in recognition of his scientific work.

J: A. S. Stendall: Robert Bell, geologist: a biographical sketch. Portrait. Belfast. 1938. Irish Nat. Journ. 5, 62, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Born in Dublin, Bellingham became a distinguished surgeon of that city. He published in the Magazine of Natural History (4, 1840) and the Annals of Natural History (13-14, 1844) an important "Catalogue of the Entozoa indigenous to Ireland," a subject but little studied in that country before or since. He was one of the founders of the Natural History Society of Dublin.

Webb: Compend. of Irish Biography, 579. Roy. Soc. Cat. Sci. Papers,1, 264.

Stephen Allen Bennett was born at Burslem. He took the M.A. degree at Cambridge and later the B.Sc. in London. He then studied for two years at Heidelberg. In 1898 he was appointed science master at Campbell College, Belfast, and remained there till failing health caused his resignation in 1926. He acquired a sound knowledge of the local phanerogams, and extended the range of a number of the rarer species, as will be seen from the Flora of the North-east of Ireland, second (1938) edition, and he was interested also in geology and anthropology. Bennett was President of the Belfast Field Club, of which he was an active member, in 1920-1922, and was awarded its Commemoration Medal.

Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 37, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Rev. C. W. Benson, M.A., LL.D., school-master and clergyman, lover of birds, will be long remembered not for his writings, which were slight, but as an apostle of the interest and beauty of birds. Born at Casdecomer, he took his B.A. degree in Dublin University in 1859, and in the same year he started Rathmines School, which under his wise and energetic leadership became one of the leading educational establishments in Dublin. He took the LL.D. degree, and after completing the Divinity course held in succession two local curacies, but the care of his school and his devotion to ornithology were his main pre-occupations for forty years. His little book Our Irish Song-birds, written with charm and understanding, is worthy of a true naturalist. He resigned his head-mastership in 1899, and in 1902 became rector of Balbriggan, where he died still full of mental and physical energy at the age of eighty-three years.

Irish Nat., 28, 73, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Birchen was born near Leeds. He entered his father's business there, and later was Pickford's agent in Leeds, Dublin, and other places. A fall from a cliff wrecked his health and he settled in the Isle of Man. He wrote much on entomological subjects (1864-1878), his most important paper being his "Notes on the Lepidoptera of Ireland" (Entom. Monthly Mag., 1864-1867).

Entom. Monthly Mag., 21, 23. Roy. Soc. Cat. Sci. Papers, 1, 386, 7, 177.

Gerard, Boate, De Boot, Bootius, or Botius, was a Dutchman, born at Gorcum. He passed through the famous University of Leyden, obtaining the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Coming to London, he was appointed physician to King Charles I. An act of the English Parliament of 1642 admitted the Dutch to subscribe to a fund for the "reduction" of the Irish, to be repaid by the simple method of bestowing upon the subscribers grants of lands forfeited in that country by the English, and to this fund Boate contributed, with the ultimate result that, in 1667, his widow actually obtained a grant of over one thousand acres in Tipperary, in return for his payments. In order to assist this estimable scheme, Boate projected a book on the amenities of. Ireland, to whet the enthusiasm of "adventurers" for Irish land. He had never been to Ireland, but so slight a drawback was no deterrent to his writing about that country, basing his account on reports received from others; and a very interesting and mainly accurate book he made of it - a small duodecimo, first published in London in 1652. It was written in 1645; the author was appointed by Oliver Cromwell physician to the hospital in Dublin in 1649; but he died a few months after taking up his appointment there. The manuscript of his book (Ireland's Naturall History : Being a true and ample Description (and so on for just another 100 words). Written by Gerard Boate, late Doctor of Physick to the State of Ireland, and now Published by Samuell Hartlib, Esq.; for the Common Good of Ireland, and more especially for the benefit of the adventurers and Planters therein) came into the possession of Hartlib, a Pole resident in London, a friend of John Milton, a philanthropist and writer; in his philanthropy he proposed to supplant the ejected Irish by exiled Protestants, Bohemians, and "some well affected out of the Low Countries." Boate's book itself is highly interesting; it gives an excellent account of Ireland, which shows that he was well served by those from whom he obtained his information. That it excited attention is known by the fact that it ran through several editions, including a French translation.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 5, 284. Praeger: A Populous Solitude, chap. V, 1941.

b. 1874
Lionel Henry Bonaparte-Wyse was born near Waterford city, third son of William Charles Bonaparte-Wyse, Provençal poet and friend of Mistral. Contact with Rev. W. W. Flemyng of Pordaw started him as a boy in the study of entomology. Educated in Belgium and France he came to live in England in 1910. He has made many visits to Ireland, as shown by his numerous notes on Irish insects in the Irish Naturalist, 1897-1924. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera have been his principal study.

Personal information.

Born near Cork, and intended for the law, Bowles went to Paris to study science. He became superintendent of state mines in Spain, and later was commissioned to form a natural history collection there. After extensive travels in that country, he published in Madrid an Introduccion a la Historia Natural, y a la Geographia fisica de Espagne (1775), which was translated into several other languages. The Peruvian genus Bowlesia Ruiz. & Pavon. was dedicated to him.

Webb: Compend. Irish Biogr., 28. Renouf, Irish Nat. Journ., 3, 237.

David Bigham Bradshaw was one of the small band of botanists who made the Irish mosses and liverworts their special study. Born in Ballyshannon, he received a school education in Dublin and Portora, and spent his life in the service of the Provincial Bank of Ireland, retiring in 1936 to live in Dublin. He was a diligent worker at the Muscineae, adding a number of new stations for rarer Irish species, and ever ready with advice and help to other students.

Irish Nat. Journ., 8, 166, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Rev. S. A. Brenan, B.A. (Dublin) who died at his rectory at Cushendun, Co. Antrim, after a long tenure of office, was an observant zoologist and botanist, and published notes, mainly of Antrim animals and plants, and chiefly in the Irish Naturalist. He was the first finder in Ireland of Hieracium tridentatum (at Marble Arch) still known only from Fermanagh and Donegal.

Irish Nat., 17, 43; 22, 30. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 44. Personal knowledge.

This distinguished botanist, born at Montrose, is connected with Ireland in that he was stationed in Ulster between 1795 and 1800 as surgeon in the Fifeshire Regiment of Fencibles, and collected plants, which are recorded in his MSS. preserved in the British Museum, and the records transferred thence to local Floras.

The Robert Brown material in the National Herbarium, Glasnevin, Dublin. (Sister Martin Powell, Glasra 1: 12-39.)

Dia. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. I, 302. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 48.

fl. 1816-1846
Thomas Brown was a Captain in the Forfarshire Militia, and a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and interested in both zoology and botany. He wrote an Account of the Irish Testacea (1815) and mentioned Irish shells in other more general writings (1827-1845), published mostly in Edinburgh. His Irish Testacea was the earliest work of importance on the Irish Land and Fresh-water Mollusca.

Roy. Soc. Cat. Sci. Papers, 1, 662. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 49.

Patrick Browne, M.D. of Leyden (where he formed an intimacy with Linnaeus and other noteworthy men), was one of the pioneers in Irish natural history. His Fasciculus Plantarum Hiberniae (MS.) has survived, and is preserved in the library of the Linnean Society; the specimens were collected mainly in Mayo (where he was born, at Woodstock) and Galway, in 1788. He published catalogues of the birds and fishes of Ireland in Exshaw's Magazine (1774). He made many visits to the West Indies, where he collected extensively. His most important work (1756, 2nd ed. 1765) dealt with the natural history of Jamaica. Jacquin dedicated the genus Brownaea to him.

Dict. Nat. Biogr. 7, 53. Webb Compend. Irish Biography, 40. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 50.

1885 - 1970
James Ponsonby Brunker, of 28 Grosvenor Place, Rathmines, Dublin, early got in touch with that excellent botanist, R. W. Scully, and took up the botanical exploration of County Wicklow (higher plants), on which he has now been engaged for many years; it is hoped that his Flora of the area will soon appear. He spent most of his life in the service of Arthur Guinness & Co. of Dublin, from which firm he retired in 1945. He is a good ornithologist, and is a leading member of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club.

In 1957 he was elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy. He was closely associated with the Boy Scout movement from its inception in 1909, and he ventually became assistant commissioner for Dublin and District.

Personal knowledge.

JAMES BRYCE (the younger)
James Bryce, M.A., LL.D., belonging to a Scottish family, son of Rev. James Bryce, was born near Coleraine, educated at home, and graduated at Glasgow in 1828. He joined the staff of the Belfast Academy, a well-known boys' and girls' school. Interested in geology, he published papers on fossils of Co. Antrim and other subjects in the Philosophical Magazine, etc. Appointed in 1846 mathematical master of the Glasgow High School, he wrote books on mathematics, astronomy and geology, and on his retirement continued to write on Scottish geology. His Alma Mater conferred on him in 1858 the degree of LL.D. He was killed by a fall of cliff in the highlands. His eldest son was created Viscount Bryce of Dechmont in 1914.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Society, Centenary Volume, 65-66. 1924. Dict. Nat. Biogr., 7, 159. Who was Who, 1916-1928. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 34 (Proc.), 35.

d. 1904
"One of the most careful and talented entomologists who ever worked in Ireland." He contributed to the Irish Naturalist two important papers in 1900 and 1902, as well as some notes, and made over fifty additions to the Irish fauna, chiefly among the Coleoptera. He resided in the Foyle and in the Belfast areas.

Irish Nat. 13, 156.

Rev. George Russell Bullock-Webster, Canon of Ely, took the B.A. degree at Cambridge in 1879, and the M.A. in 1887, and became a London clergyman. For many years he studied the Charophyta or Stoneworts, and was joint author with James Groves of the well-known Ray Society monograph (1920-1924) on these interesting plants. He visited Ireland several times, collecting in Donegal especially, also in Monaghan, adding several species to the Irish list - Nitella mucronata, N. spanioclema, Chara muscosa, the last two being new to science.

Who was Who. Groves and Bullock-Webster, op. cit. Praeger: Botanist in Ireland, 78.

Frederick William Burbidge was born in Leicestershire. He became a student at the Chiswick Garden, where he took out the full course, and went thence to Kew. He collected for the firm of Veitch in Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago. He was appointed Curator of them Trinity College Botanic Garden in 1879, where he spent the remainder of his life, receiving an honorary M.A. from Dublin University and the Victoria Memorial Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society for his services to horticulture, to which subject he contributed several noteworthy books. He was an accomplished botanist; it was the vegetation of the world and its representation in botanic gardens that occupied his attention. He endeavoured to add variety to the flora of Ireland by scattering seeds of exotic plants around Dublin; this well-meant indiscretion brought him into opposition with local students of natural plant-distribution. Sir Joseph Hooker named the genus Burbidgea after him.

Notes Prom the Bon. School of Trin. Coll.. Dublin, 2, 44. Irish Nat, 15, 71. &Wen & Boulger, , ed. 2, 54. Personal knowledge.

Dr. Burkitt practised as a physician in Waterford till about 1883, when he removed to Belmullet. "His life-long devotion to ornithology may be inferred from the many references to him in Thompson's work." He added to the list of Irish birds the Barred Warbler, of which only four specimens have been recorded since, and he is well known as the donor to the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin, of the only specimen of the Great Auk taken in Irish waters; other donations of rare birds were made to Trinity College and also to the National Museum.

R. J. Ussher, who contributed a notice of him to the Irish Naturalist pays tribute to his "Singular sincerity and simplicity of character." Irish Nat 2, 224.

see Desmond 1977 p.110

Some account of the activities of Isaac Butler, "Judicial Astrologer, Discoverer of Losses, and Calculator of Nativities" and his employment for botanical research in Ireland by the Physico-Historical Society of Dublin, is given by Colgan in his Flora of the County Dublin, xxi-xxiii. He is believed to have been responsible for the "Catalogue of the more rare Plants found spontaneously growing in the County of Down in May, 1743" which appears in Chap. XI of Walter Harris's Antient and Present State of the County of Down (1744). Butler's travels in Ireland were wide, and Colgan concludes that he had a better practical knowledge of the Irish flora than any of his contemporaries; but he published nothing, and his manuscript materials (see Colgan l.c.) have long since disappeared. Colgan: Fl. Dublin, xxi. Briton & Boulger, ed. 2, 56.

b. 1884
Prof. Bayley Butler was born at Secundrabad, India, and passed through the Catholic University Medical School in Dublin; he studied also at Bonn, Bergen, Naples and in Canada. He was appointed Professor of Botany in University College, Dublin, and changed it for the Professorship of Zoology, which post he still occupies. He holds the degrees of M.A. (1907) and M.B. (1909) in the National University of Ireland, and was created M.B.E. for war services. He has worked especially at biology as applied to architecture, building construction and civil engineering, and has advanced Irish natural history by means of lectures and demonstrations especially of marine life. Personal knowledge.

David Callender Campbell was born near Londonderry and was an active naturalist throughout his life, interested mainly in birds and butterflies. He recorded numerous observations and occurrences in the Irish Naturalist from its inception in 1892 till 1923, and in other journals. Prom his home in Derry he acted as a useful observer and recorder for the north-west, and transmitted to other workers much information which he did not himself publish. He was senior partner of the firm of Campbell Bros., flour importers; he worked to secure for his city a Museum, but local apathy has undone most of what he succeeded in effecting. Personal knowledge.

George Herbert Carpenter was a Londoner, and took a science degree in London University; after a few years in an engineer's office, he obtained apost as clerk in the South Kensington Museum. Desirous of a scientific career, he won in 1888 an Assistantship in the Natural History Division of the Museum of Science and Art (now National Museum) in Dublin. Here, under Scharff his work lay mostly in those vast groups the Insecta and Arachnida, especially the Spiders and less known insects such as the Springtails and Bristletails; he preferred the working out of difficult forms like these to extensive collecting. To him and the committee of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club (of which he was then Secretary), is due the inception of the scheme which resulted in the founding of The Irish Naturalist, with him and the writer as editors; which partnership continued until Carpenter left Ireland in 1922. He was appointed to the Professorship of Zoology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland in 1904, and Became Secretary of the Royal Zoological Society in 1911. These posts gave him much congenial work, especially his intimate connection with the Dublin "Zoo." He left Ireland in 1923 and became Keeper of the University Museum of Manchester, to retire in 1937. While in Manchester he satisfied his deeply religious nature by taking Holy Orders, and assisted the Church in many directions; but he continued to carry on his museum work with its manifold duties. Carpenter published several books and many papers on insects and arachnids. Perhaps his most useful original work was (in conjunction with T. It. Hewitt) the solving of the problem of that highly injurious insect the Warble Fly. Irish Nat. Journ., 7, 138, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Carroll was born at Aghada, Co. Cork. He became a very good all-round botanist, studying and collecting flowering plants, mosses, lichens, algae, making excursions or maintaining correspondence with D. Moore, Admiral Jones, Nylander, and many other botanists. At the time of his premature death he was collaborating with Rev. T. Allin in the production of a general Flora of County Cork. Records and specimens of his, especially in the group of Lichens, are much in evidence in Floras or in herbaria. His death cut off a life devoted vigorously to the botany of his native country. He planned a Lichenes Hibernici Exsiccati, of which only one fasciculus was issued (1859). He visited Lapland and Iceland to study their flora.

Isaac Carroll (1828-1880): a catalogue of lichens collected in Scandinavia in 1863 housed in the Herbarium, National Botanic Gardens, Dublin (H.Fox and M.Scannell; Glasra 4: 63-84, 2000)

Journ. Bot. 1281.128. Knowles in Proc. R.I. Acad., 98 8,184. Renouf in Irish Nat. Journ., 3, 237. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 59.

b. 1898
E. N. Carrothers, son of the under-mentioned, is to be reckoned among the best of the younger generation of Irish field botanists, having a critical eye and an alert brain. His post in the Midland Railway (Northern Counties Committee) in Belfast gave him opportunities of local travel of which he has taken full advantage, and he has an excellent working knowledge of the phanerogamic flora of north-eastern Ireland. He has been President of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club (1943-44). Jointly with R. D. Meikle he was the discoverer of the rare grass Hierochloe odorata on Lough Neagh (1946).

Personal knowledge.

The scientific life of Nathaniel Carrothers, father of the last-mentioned, centred in the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, of which he was a member for 38 years. His interests were botanical, and he was especially attracted by the numerous aliens and casuals within the flora, and added much to our knowledge of them. He was a native of Fermanagh, a man of retiring disposition, ever ready to place his wide knowledge of northern plants at the disposition of enquirers. The Belfast Club showed their appreciation of his industry by the award of their Commemoration Medal. He published various notes on rare local plants in the Irish Naturalist, 1903-1913.

Irish Nat. Jam. , 3, 57. Personal knowledge.

Dr. Carte was born at Newcastle, Co. Limerick. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, and took the degrees of M.A. (1833), and M.D. (1860). In 1846 he was appointed Curator of the' Royal Dublin Society's Natural History Museum and later (1851) Director, and when those collections were incorporated in the new Dublin Museum of Science and Art and put under the South Kensington Department in 1878, he became first Director. He was interested in fossil mammals, and his papers include records of the "Irish Elk" and Reindeer from Ireland.

Sir Charles Cameron: History of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 280. Royal Soc. Car., 1, 802, 7, 341.

b. 1889
John Kaye Charlesworth, D.Sc., Ph.D., who has held the Chair of Geology in Queen's University, Belfast, since 1921, was born at Leeds, and attended the universities of Leeds, London, Breslau and Munich. He was Geologist on the Scottish Spitzbergen expedition of 1919, and subsequently Senior Lecturer in Geology at Manchester. In Ireland he has worked especially at glacial phenomena, and written important papers, published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, and the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. He is a strong advocate of universal glaciation in Ireland resulting in the practical extermination of the fauna and flora. The Belfast Held Club in 1936 awarded him its Commemoration Medal.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

b. 1878
Captain Chase, M.A., was born at Weston-super-Mare, and obtained the M.A. degree at Cambridge. He came to Campbell College, Belfast, as an Assistant Master in 1905, and save for war service (KC. 1918) he has continued in that post. He is an excellent field botanist, and has done useful work in the north-east. His holidays have been spent mostly on the Continent and in North Africa, where -he has carried out wide-spread herborisations.

Personal knowledge

George W. Chaster, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., was born at Wigan, received his medical training at University College, Liverpool, and spent his life in practice at Southport. From boyhood he was devoted to natural science, and published much, especially in conchology. In his later years he spent holidays mostly in Ireland, collecting and dredging. Irish conchology especially owes much to his work, and he by no means confined his attention to the Mollusca. His death at the early age of forty-seven was a severe loss to Irish zoology.

_Num. Conchology, 13, 72. Irish Nat., 19, 137.63

General Chesney was born at Annalong in Co. Down, and is known to botanists for his explorations in the Euphrates valley between 1836 and 1858. He was D.C.L. of Oxford (1850) and F.R.S. (1834). Lindley dedicated the genus Chesneya to him.

Louisa Chesney and James O'Donnell: The Life of the late General P. R. Chesney . . . 1875. Dict. Nat. Biog. 10, 185. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 63.

d. 1923
Sydney Mary Thompson was born in Belfast, and as a geologist was a product of the Belfast Field Club. Stimulated by the work of Percy Kendall, she with Miss Mary Andrews and a few others carried out research on the local glacial deposits, especially in the collecting and naming of the tirades of the drift with a view of determining the direction of ice-flow; her reports (as Secretary of the committee) were published in the Club's Proceedings. In middle life she married the Swiss artist Rudolphe Christen, who died not many years later. She herself died at Llandudno in 1923.

Irish Nat., 32, 108. Personal knowledge.

b. 1862
A. M'I Cleland was born at Liverpool, and adopted the profession of gas engineer, spending most of his life in Best. He is interested in geology and archaeology and has studied especially the basaltic rocks of Antrim and the underlying Cretaceous beds, publishing mainly in the Irish Naturalists' Journal. He has been President of the Belfast Association of Engineers, and in 1918-1920 President of the Belfast Field Club, of which he is a prominent member; and he was awarded the Commemoration Medal of that Society in 1933.

Private information.

Lord Clonbrock (fifth Baron), better known to naturalists as the Hon. R. E. Dillon (before he succeeded his father in 1917), was an entomologist, and collected Lepidoptera both at his residence at Clonbrock, Co. Galway and elsewhere in Ireland. He recorded a number of very rare insects, but a suspicion of careless labelling or mixing of specimens has diminished the value of his work, as efforts to re-collect the species in question have failed.

Personal knowledge.

Rev. Maxwell Henry Close, MA., was born in Dublin, and died there at the age of eighty-one. He passed through the Divinity School in Trinity College and was rector of two English parishes in turn. In 1861 he returned to Dublin, where he spent the remainder of his life. He was a brilliant geologist, and in devoting himself to the elucidation of the Glacial Period he proved a fearless pioneer and a very wise interpreter of abstruse phenomena; his papers on the general glaciation of Ireland and (with G. H. Kinahan) on the glaciation of late Connaught, remain classics in Irish geology" He was ahead of his time in recognizing the effects of land ice, and he particularly traced out the course of the ice-sheets and confluent glaciers in Ireland by means of the direction of the drumlin ridges and of the furrows cut in the solid rock" (Cole and Hallissy). He puzzled much over the question of high-level shell-bearing glacial gravels, but ended by attributing them to submergence, which was considered in his day to be the cause of many glacial phenomena, now explained as the result of movements of land ice.

Quart Journ. Geol. Soc. 60 63o043, /xxi. Irish Nat., 12, 301, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Grenville Arthur James Cole needed no startling university career to place his foot on the ladder of success in his chosen subject. He proved "one of the most brilliant and versatile of the school of geologists which sprang up towards the end of the last century under the inspiring influence of Professor Judd." Born in London in 1859, educated at the City of London School and the Royal School of Mines, he was appointed to the Chair of Geology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland in 1890. A year later he issued his Aids to Practical Geology, a strikingly successful book which ran to seven editions. He was an indefatigable worker, publishing many contributions to the study of petrology from Irish material, and making incursions into metamorphism, glacial geology and palaeontology. He travelled extensively during vacations, and was ever ready with some Continental example to illuminate an Irish problem. With a fluent pen and a brilliant sense of literary values, he produced a series of books which were of especial value as popular introductions to the science of geology; and he was exceptionally generous in his acknowledgment of the work of others. On the rise of geography to the status of an independent science he took a leading part in its development, and his lectures and addresses on the subject were infused with a strong human interest which broadened the conception of the subject. The Directorship of the Irish Geological Survey was added to his College duties in 1905; he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1917 and Belfast University conferred on him the degree of D.Sc.—which honours he valued the more because long and increasing ill-health curtailed by degrees his physical activities and compelled the relinquishment of many schemes for the furthering of his chosen science in Ireland. "One does not know whether to admire most in Cole his subtlety of mind, his wide intellectual outlook, or the indomitable spirit which he displayed to the end."

Proc. Roy. Soc., 100, iv-vii. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 81 (Proc.), lxvi. Irish Nat., 33, 57. portrait. Personal knowledge.

Were it not for his excellent Flora of the County Dublin (1904) the name of Nathaniel Colgan might be but slightly known even to botanists; for he was a man of great modesty and of retiring disposition, and it was largely his connection in later life with the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club that allowed a widening circle to have the privilege of his acquaintance. Perhaps his life-occupation--that of a clerk in the Dublin Metropolitan Police Court—where his environment can scarcely have been congenial for a man of his literary and scientific tastes, helped to maintain this isolation. He entered that service at the age of twenty and remained in it till his retirement under the age limit in 1916. But holidays were spent in European travel in company with stimulating companions—notably C. F. D'Arcy, later Archbishop and Primate—and he wrote sketches, largely of travel, for various journals. His discovery of the Sawwort in Wicklow turned his attention to botany, and encouraged by A. G. More, an adept in discovering and fostering talent among younger men, Colgan soon began the systematic collecting of materials for a Flora of his native county. Never was a similar area more thoroughly examined, and from the floristic point his book, published in 1904, is a model in its painstaking accuracy and careful detail. But he was no more than embarked on this work before a more urgent task devolved on him. A. G. More died in 1895, and by the terms of his will Colgan and R. W. Scully were appointed to edit and publish a second edition of Cybele Hibernica. This involved a very large amount of work, and almost amounted to the writing of a new book; yet it appeared in 1898. Colgan then completed his Flora of the County Dublin, which was published six years later.
Perhaps he had by now suffered from a plethora of work on the subject of flowering plants, for he turned to marine mollusca, substituting the boat and the dredge for the study and pen, and especially among the tunicates he materially advanced our knowledge.

Irish Nat., 28, 121, portrait, 29, 23. Praeger. The Way that I War, ed. 3, 278. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 69. Personal knowledge.

Theodore Cooke, C.I.E., MA., LL.D., was born at Tramore, Co. Waterford. He graduated at Dublin University in 1859, and went to India as a railway engineer. In 1865 he was appointed Principal of the Civil Engineering College at Poona, and afterwards Director of the Botanical Survey of Western India, in which capacity he produced a noteworthy Flora of the Presidency of Bombay (1901-1908). Later he worked out certain families for the Flora Capensis. He was already elderly when he embarked on these heavy botanical tasks; his writings are marked by extreme thoroughness and accuracy.

Proc. Linnaean Soc., 1910-11, 36. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 72.

Thomas Hughes Corry came of a well-known Belfast family. At Cambridge he studied botany, became Assistant to Prof. Babington, and took his M.A. degree. While still an undergraduate, in 1877, he joined S. A. Stewart in the preparation of a Flora of the North-east of Ireland, for which the latter had been collecting material since about 1860, working in the later years almost single-handed. But the promising partnership was doomed not to last. While exploring the Ben Bulben region in Sligo in 1883, Corry and his companion Charles Dickson lost their lives in a boating accident on Lough Gill. Corry had not yet reached his twenty-fourth birthday. He was a botanist of much promise, and I remember, while working with Stewart in the years which followed, how deeply his loss was deplored. But "S.A.S." carried on, and the Flora of the North-east of Ireland was, with generous help from the Corry family., duly published in 1888. In it the surviving editor makes due acknowledgment of his colleague's talents.

Flora N.B. Ireland, ed. I, v-vi. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 73.

Coulter was born at Dundalk, and took his M.A. and M.B. degrees in Dublin University. He explored central Mexico and California in 1831-1833, and on his return was Keeper of the-Herbarium in Trinity College, Dublin, where his valuable collection of American plants is preserved. The well-known Californian Poppy, Romneya coulteri, was named after him.

Notes from the Bor. School, Trin Coll, Dublin, 1,3. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2 74.

Nelson, E. C. & Probert, A. (1995) A man who can speak of plants: Dr. Thomas Coulter (1793-1843) of Dundalk in Ireland, Mexico and Alta California.

William Monad Crawford was educated at Belfast and Cambridge and entered the Indian Civil Service in 1895, returning in 1919 to live in Belfast, bringing with him a fine collection of Indian Lepidoptera. He continued to collect and study this group in Ireland, as also the Hemiptera and Coleoptera, and published notes of captures in Irish scientific journals. The Belfast Field Club recognized his interest in that Society by electing him President for 1926-27.

Irish Nat. fount., 7, 336. Personal knowledge.

D. J. Cunningham, F.A.S., was Professor of Anatomy first in the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin, then in Dublin University, and finally in the University of Edinburgh. He was a native of Crie1f. He did brilliant work in comparative anatomy, with the anthropoid apes and man as his special study, and very important also was his activity in organizing the teaching and practice of the Dublin Medical School. All the scientific institutions in Dublin benefited by his warm co-operation. G. H. Carpenter said of him "a great anatomist, a great naturalist, a most capable man of business, and a christian gentleman." He published a Manual of Practical Anatomy and wrote many scientific treatises published by the Royal Irish Academy and elsewhere, and received honorary degrees from Dublin, St. Andrew's, Glasgow, and Oxford.

Dia. Nat. Biogr., 1901-1930,44, Irish Nat.,18 , 229, portrait. Personal knowledge.

Robert Oliver Cunningham, D.Sc., M.D., held the chair of Natural History in Queen's College, Belfast, for thirty-one years, from 1871 onward, in succession to Wyville Thomson. He was one of the teachers who, under the code then existing, was expected to expound to his classes zoology, botany, and geology—what A. C. Haddon used to call Professors of Creation.' It is little wonder that what natural history research he did was carried out before he came to Belfast. He was an East Lothian man, and graduated M.D. at Edinburgh. He was appointed to the "Nassau" expedition to southern South America, and published The Natural History of Magellan and Patagonia in 1871, and in the Transactions of the Linnean Society an account of the reptiles, fishes, and amphibians of Patagonia.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Volume, 70. 1924. Irish Nat., 27, 128. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 80. Personal knowledge.

Born at Lismore. A woman of many accomplishments, proficient in riding, shooting and fishing, a watercolourist, besides being clever with her pencil. A keen gardener, she grew plants at the Warren Gardens, Lismore, raising a number of daffodil cultivars (she ran a bulb growing business). From the glens north of Lismore in c. 1900 she collected two colour forms of Wood Anemone, ‘Lismore Blue’ and ‘Lismore Pink’, which are still in cultivation today. She noticed that the blue forms of the Wood Anemone always grew in the immediate neighbourhood of water, within about twenty yards. The only record for Yellow Bartsia in county Waterford was seen by Currey. She is buried in the graveyard of Lismore Cathedral.

Paul Green, Flora of Waterford 2008.

c. 1866-c.1916
Henry Kingston St. George Gore Cuthbert was a Dublin entomologist and a prominent member of the Dublin Field Club. He contributed to the pages of the Irish Naturalist, 1892-1915, a number of papers and notes mostly concerning Irish Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. He held a post under the Irish Land Commission, and died prematurely.

Personal knowledge.

b. 1883
Prof. William John Dakin, D.Sc., was born in Liverpool, and educated in the University there and at Kiel. From being Lecturer in Zoology at Belfast and Liverpool he became Senior Assistant in Zoology in University College, London. After eight years as Professor of Biology in the University of Western Australia he came home to fill the corresponding post at Liverpool, and then in 1929 the Professorship of Zoology of Sydney University, which post he still holds. During his Irish sojourn he published (with Miss M. Latarche) an important paper on the seasonal changes in the Plankton of Lough Neagh (Proc. R.I.Acad., 30 B).

Who's Who. Personal knowledge. Irish Nat. Journ. 9 206-208, portrait.

J. H. Davies was born near Warrington and in early life came with his father to Co. Kildare. He spent much of his life as manager of Gletunore bleach works near Lisburn, Co. Antrim and afterwards at Banbridge. He early became interested in botany and his first publication was a list of the mosses he collected while on a visit to the Isle of Man in 1856. During his long residence in Antrim he worked assiduously at mosses, adding several to the Irish flora and one (Dicranum vaginans) to the British list. I was a boy when I first met him, and his tall and stately figure as well as his benevolent courtesy and helpful attitude towards a beginner, and keen interest in demonstrating some rare discovery, were stimulating and encouraging.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc., Centenary Volume, 70. 1924. Irish Nat., 18, 235, 23, 30. Personal knowledge.

Constance (1868-1935) and her sister Maud Jane Delap, A.L.S. (b. 1866) of Valencia Island, where their father was rector, observed and took notes of marine plankton in particular as seen or washed ashore around their home in Kerry, and their observations have been recorded in reports to the Fisheries Branch (1902-03, 1905) and in the Irish Naturalist (33, 1-6). For many years they were helpful volunteers in observing and reporting interesting items of all kinds relating to local zoology. They helped materially in the marine biological survey carried on at Valencia Island (see under VALENCIA in Part III).

Personal knowledge.

Born at Aberdeen, Dickie was educated at the Marischal College and passed on to the Medical Schools of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, qualifying as M.R.C.S., London, in 1834. He soon turned from medicine to botany and zoology,and was lecturer in these subjects as Aberdeen. He came to Belfast in 1849 as Professor of Natural History in Queen's College, and went back to Aberdeen as Professor of Botany in 1860, retiring on account of failing health in 1877. While in Ireland he collected material for a Flora of Ulster, 1864, an excellent little book which embraced not only that province, but included the interesting area of Sligo and Leitrim. Two other Floras which he wrote dealt with areas in eastern Scotland. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1881, and was M.A. and M.D. of Aberdeen.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., 15, 32. Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Vol., 71. 1924. Flora N.B. Ireland (ed. 1), xx.

—see under Lord Clonbrock

b. 1869
Henry Horatio Dixon, Sc.D., F.A.S., was 'porn in Dublin. He studied at Bonn University, and took his degree in Dublin. After being Assistant to the Professor of Botany there (Dr. B. Petra Wright) he succeeded him in 1904. He resigned in 1949. His research work has been physiological, and in conjunction with John Joly he has published very important papers on the ascent of sap in plants, which gained him Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1908. He was President of the Royal Dublin Society, 1945-1947, having already been awarded the Society's Boyle Medal in 1916.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

G. E. Dobson, M.D., was born at Edgeworthstown in Co. Longford, and after a brilliant career in Trinity College entered the Army Medical Service in 1868. After twenty years activity, mostly in India, he retired on account of ill-health, with the rank of Surgeon-Major. He was the highest British authority on rodents, insectivores and bats, and compiled the British Museum Catalogue of the Cheiroptera. Of his projected magnificent monograph of the Insectivora only two parts ever appeared (1882-3). He was a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl.140. Irish Nat., 5, 73.

b. 1870
Horace St. John Kelly Donisthorpe was born at Leicester. He spent some time in France and Germany after his school years, and swerving from a medical career took up the study of insects. He has written many books and papers upon them, being recognized as world authority upon the ants, with which much of his work deals. His large collections are now in the British Museum. He enhanced our knowledge of Irish entomology by collecting on several occasions, notably in Kerry in 1902 (Irish Nat, 12, 59), and by naming specimens.

Personal information.

b. 1863
Col. Donovan was born in Calcutta, and belongs to a Co. Cork family. Coming to Ireland, he passed through Queen's College, Cork, and Trinity College, Dublin, and entered the Indian Medical Service in 1891. After a career in which he saw Paige service in the Terai expedition, he became Professor of Biology in Madras University; he specializes in diseases of the eye. He has taken a keen interest in birds and macrolepidoptera since he was a boy at school in India, and in 1936 published a useful "Catalogue of the Macrolepidoptera of Ireland."

Information from his sister Mrs. Lucas.

"Richard Dowden (Richard)" as he called himself, Irish-fashion, was born at Bandon, and became a merchant of Cork, and President of the Cuvierian Society there. He wrote a pleasant little book, Walks after Wild Flowers, or the Botany of the Bohereens (1852), based on plants found about Cork.

Reston( in Irish Not. Jaunt., 3, 237. Britten & Boulger, , ed. 2, 94.

b. 1891 - 1974
Joseph Doyle, BA., D.Sc., was born in Dublin. He studied in Germany and graduated in the Royal University of Ireland in 1910. He has been Professor of Botany in University College, Dublin, since 1924, and has published many papers, mostly on the reproductive organs of conifers. He was awarded the Boyle Medal of the Royal Dublin Society in 1942.

Who's Who. Personal knowledge.

George Claridge Druce, F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., well-known British botanist, in the course of his extensive investigations into British flowering plants, paid several visits to Ireland (1898, 1901, 1906, 1909) and added considerably to the knowledge of the Irish flora, mostly among critical plants and varieties, publishing his finds mainly in the Irish Naturalist.

Roy. Soc. Obit. Notices, Dec., 1932. 12-14 portrait. Who was Who, 1929-1940. Irish Naturalist, l.c. Personal knowledge.

1784 ?-1863
James Drummond, who was of Scottish birth, was for some time (c. 1809) Curator of the Cork Botanic Garden. He was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society in 1810—in which year also he discovered the famous American-Irish orchid, Spiranthes gemmipara, near Castietown Berehaven, and Pinguicula grandiflora at Macroom in 1809. He went in 1829 to West Australia, where he became a professional plant-collector. His speciality was orchids, in which group he became a recognized authority; he found many new species, and was the author of treatises concerning them. W. H. Harvey dedicated the genus Drummondita to the two brothers Drummond—the termination ita signifying "an I for James and a T for Thomas." Both were botanical collectors.

Dict. Nat. Biogr. 16, 33. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 95. Renouf in Irish Nat Journ. 3, 238.

Born at lame, and an M.D. of Edinburgh, he practiced medicine and taught science in Belfast. Drummond was an ardent advocate of the study of natural science, and on the founding of the Belfast Natural History Society in 1821 he became its first President, with James MacAdam as Vice-President and G. C. Hyndman (q.v.) Secretary and Treasurer. He was also one of the founders of the Belfast Botanic Garden in 1820. He wrote First Steps to Botany (1823), Natural Systems of Botany (1849) and other books.

Belfast Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. Centenary Volume, 72. portrait. 1924. Dict. Nat. Biog., 16, 33.. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2. 95.

d. 1835
Thomas Drummond was Scotch by birth, being a brother of James Drummond (q.v.). He was first a nurseryman at Forfar, then (1828-31) Curator of the Belfast Botanic Garden. From 1831 he collected for the Glasgow Botanic Garden, working in North- America from Canada to Texas. He had Arctic experience also, with Franklin, and issued fasciculi of Scottish and American mosses. Drummond did some botanizing while in Belfast. Hooker named the genus Drummondia after him. He issued a volume without letterpress of Musci Scotici, many of the specimens being Irish. He was an Associate of the Linnean Society.

Din. Nat. Elegy., 16, 41. Britten & Boulger, ed. 2, 96. Lett in Irish Nat., 22, 28.

d. 1937
J. B. Duerden, M.Sc., Ph.D., A.R.C.S., received his scientific training at the Royal College of Science in London, 1885-1889, and at Johns Hopkins University. He held a zoological post in the Royal College of Science for Ireland, c. 1893-1896, where he lectured and carried out fishery investigations, publishing several useful papers mainly on Irish Hydrozoa and Polyzoa. From Dublin he went to the Curatorship of the museum at Kingston, Jamaica, held posts in several museums in the United States, conducted an expedition to the Hawaiian islands and returned to England to work at wool research.

Nature, 140, 576. Who was Who, 1929-40. Personal knowledge,

James Duffy left no trace behind in scientific literature, but the knowledge he acquired by his own industry and the help that he gave to numerous students and other enquirers in the "Bone Room" in the National Museum in Dublin deserve record. He entered the museum service as an Attendant in 1884, and retired from the same institution (as Head Attendant) in 1929. He acquired what Stelfox describes as an "amazing knowledge" of bones, that was of much service during the years during which cave-digging was going on under Ussher, Scharff, and others, and tens of thousands of bones were passing through the museum work-rooms; and he performed successfully work of identification and arrangement for which a skilled palaeontological assistant ought to have been (but was not) provided. Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 238.

Personal knowledge.

G. V. Du Noyer was of French extraction. He joined the Geological Survey in Ireland as Temporary Geologist in 1848, becoming District Surveyor in 1867; he died two years later. He was a skilled and rapid draughtsman (he had served for several years in the Archaeological Branch of the Irish Survey under Petrie), and being especially interested in archaeology he used his talents to make sketches of a very large number of ancient buildings. These, though scattered through various collections (e.g. R. I. Academy) and books, are mostly still available, and are of importance as showing the condition of many structures about a century ago. His geological work was published mainly in the Survey Memoirs.

The First Hundred Years of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 245. Geological Magazine, 1869, 93.

Dwerryhouse had a varied career. He was born at Hale in Lancashire. While a clerk in a Liverpool insurance company, and then in the milling trade, he studied in his spare time the Foraminifera of Liverpool Bay. He went on to Leeds University, where he took his D.Sc. degree and joined the staff of the Department of Geology, doing good work at problems of local glaciation, and at the investigation of underground waters of the Ingleborough massif. Front the post of Lecturer on Petrology at Belfast he proceeded to the Chair of Geology in the same city, and at the end of military service in France he was appointed Lecturer in Petrology at Reading, from which post he retired in 1929. While at Belfast he published an important paper on the glaciation of north-eastern Ireland.

Quart. Journ. Geol. Sot., 88, Proc., lxxxii. Personal knowledge.

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