Botanical Resources


Flora of Ireland


Threatened Plants




by Robert Lloyd Praeger D.Sc.

Introduction and Preface; 1-26: Geography, Topology, Climate ; 27-47: General history of the flora;
48-69: Vegetational sub-divisions; 70-78: Human Influence and Botanical workers;
79-219: Some Interesting Plants;


79. For convenience of reference it may be well to list the more interesting members of the Irish flora in systematic order, with brief notes as to their distribution, etc. This list deals mostly with such well-marked and well-known species (Linneons) as are of rare occurrence in Ireland or Britain or both, but some interesting critical plants and hybrids have been included. A fair amount of work has been done at the more critical plants in Ireland, but a great deal remains. Many of the finer splits, such as those of Capsella, Viola, Taraxacum, Thymus, Salicornia., have hardly been touched as yet. In so far as segregates have been awarded specific rank in the eleventh edition of the “London Catalogue,” their Irish range is shown in brief in the “Census List” which appears at the end of this volume. For further information, the obvious Irish works of reference should be consulted, as well as papers by E. S. Marshall, G. C. Druce, C. H. Waddell, etc., referred to in the Bibliography in “Irish Topographical Botany”; also my own papers, “Gleanings in Irish Topographical Botany,” in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 24, B, 1902, and “A Contribution to the Flora of Ireland” (including 3rd Suppl. to “Irish Topographical Botany”) in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 42, B, 1934. Druce's “Comital Flora of the British Isles” contains some additional records (Viola, Alchemilla, Thymus, Rhinanthus, etc. – see 492). As regards hybrids, work is required in Epilobium, Euphrasia, Rumex, Salix, and some other genera. The few hybrids mentioned below are ones in which interesting species take part, or which are known to be of very infrequent occurrence.

80. Ranunculus fluitans Lamk.–Known only from the Sixmilewater in Antrim, where it grows abundantly for some miles (461). First found by S. A. Stewart in 1.865. Widespread in England and southern Scotland, and in Europe generally.

81. Ranunculus tripartitus DC. – Found by R. A. Phillips in 1896 growing plentifully in a small lake S of Baltimore in W Cork (see Journ. Bot., 1896, 277, and Irish Nat., 1896, 166), and the closely allied R. lutarius in a pool near Adrigole, 20 miles to the NW in 1894. Only Irish stations. In Britain R. tripartitus is exceedingly rare, and in England in SW only. In Europe western. See also 297, 306.

82. Ranunculus scoticus E. S. Marshall (R. petiolaris E. S. Marshall, 1892, non H. B. & K., 1821. R. Flammula var. petiolaris Lange). – Only recently separated from R. Flammula, and distribution imperfectly known. First found in Ireland by Marshall on Achill I. in 1899; since by many lakes in W Mayo, and by Loughs Corrib, Mask, Conn, Achree, Gill, Key, Macnean, Erne, Neagh (Londonderry), and Dan (Wicklow). Also by L. Bofin in Leitrim, whence there was a doubtful old record (Journ. Bot., 1892, 377). From 50 ft. (L. Corrib) to 1000 ft. (lakelets S of Lower L. Erne). It occurs both on and off the limestone. Figured in Journ. Bot., 1892, tab. 328. Known from 14 vice-counties in Scotland.

82a. Caltha radicans Forst. – Long known only from Devenish Island near Enniskillen, it proves to be widespread in Ireland, though not in such an extreme form. It is lowland, favouring lake-shores especially in the Central Plain and elsewhere, and becomes rare only in the E and SE. See Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 98-102, 1934, for particulars of its distribution.

83. Meconopsis cambrica Vig. – Isolated stations on the hills in many counties, 50-1500 ft., but absent from some likely ground, such as Kerry, Mayo, Donegal. First found by John Templeton at Fair Head in Antrim before 1804. Southern in Britain, being not native in Scotland. Southwestern in Europe (Ireland to Spain and the Jura).

84. Matthiola sinuata Br. – A rare and decreasing species in Ireland, but still grows on the Wexford coast (see Irish Nat. Journ., 1, 96), and in Clare (Irish Nat., 1912, 153, and Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 33); apparently extinct in Kerry (Fl. Kerry, 16). In Britain confined to SW England and Wales. Elsewhere on the shores of W Europe and the Mediterranean.

85. Arabis Brownii Jordan Diagn. 123, 1864. (A. ciliata auct. angl., non R. Br. A. hibernica Willmott, Journ. Bot., 1924, 26). A critical plant, which has been involved in much confusion, on account of its proximity to forms of A. hirsuta. As now segregated, it appears to be endemic in Ireland (see Salmon in Journ. Bot., 1924, 2368). First found by Lhwyd in 1699. In sandy places along the west coast in S Kerry, W Cork, Clare, W Galway, and W Donegal.

86. Cochlearia anglica Linn. – Till lately considered a southern plant in Ireland (Wexford to the Shannon), with an outlying station on the Foyle, but now known to occur in muddy places and by muddy waters all round the Irish coast. It crosses everywhere with the ubiquitous C. officinalis, the hybrids being usually much more abundant than pure anglica, and including “var.” Hortii (Praeger in Proc. R. Irish Acad., 41, B, 96-100, 1932). In Britain southern, but extends to the W coast of Scotland. In Europe along the NW coasts.

87. C. groenlandica Linn. (see Marshall in Journ. Bot., 1892, 225-6, tab. 326. C. scotica Druce). – West and north coasts, in Cork, Kerry, Clare, Galway, Mayo, Sligo, Donegal, Derry, Antrim, frequent on exposed sea-rocks. See Praeger in Proc. R. I. Acad., 41, B, 101-2, 1932. Frequent in similar situations in Scotland; apparently absent further S in Britain. NW Europe to the Arctic. First found by H. C. Hart before 1896. Crosses in Kerry, Donegal, and Derry with C. officinalis.

88. Sisymbrium Irio Linn. – A characteristic Dublin alien, unknown elsewhere in Ireland. Formerly abundant; much rarer now, owing mainly, according to Colgan (Fl. Dublin, 21), to the substitution of concrete for gravel on suburban foot-ways. Occasionally found from Swords to Dun Laoghaire (Kingstown), but mostly near the city, where it was first noted by John Templeton at the beginning of the 19th century. In Britain it is equally rare and local. Widespread in Europe, extending to N Africa, etc.

89. Helianthemum guttatum Mill. – The type and var. breweri grow plentifully at Three Castle Head in W Cork, and on Inishbofin (405) and (var. Breweri only). the neighbouring Inishark in W Galway; the type also sparingly on Inishturk (406), a few miles N. First found by Miss Townsend before 1843. The variety grows on Anglesea, but the nearest station for the type is the Channel Islands. The plant has a wide foreign range – Europe, N Africa, W Asia.

90. Helianthemum canum Baumg. – Locally abundant in Burren, Co. Clare, with outliers on Inishmore and the Cliffs of Moher to the W, and Salthill in W Galway to the N. First found by J. T. Mackay before 1806. W England, rare. More widely spread abroad, in Europe, W Asia, N Africa.

90a. Helianthemum Chamaecistus Mill. – Found by H. C. Hart in 1893 on bare limestone south of Ballintra in SW Donegal (Journ. Bot., 1893, 218); disallowed subsequently as a casual escape or introduction. Refound on the same ground in 1933, amid a native flora, and undoubtedly indigenous. (Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 76-77.) The only Irish station for a plant very widespread in Britain.

91. Viola stagnina Kitaibel. – Very local, in damp places on the western limestones in Clare, SE Galway, E Mayo and Fermanagh, and on the banks of the Shannon near Roosky in Longford. It is essentially a plant of the “turloughs” – deep grassy hollows in the limestone which are flooded, often for long periods, especially in winter (360). The neighbourhood of Gort seems to be its headquarters. Hybridizes freely with V. canina. First found in Ireland by A. G. More in 1851 at Garryland near Gort. In England very rare, mostly on bogs and fenlands in the E. Also in NW and central. Europe.

92. Viola lutea Huds. – In only three areas – one in W Cork, one in Clare, and a third about the upper Liffey in Kildare, Wicklow and Dublin, where it is very abundant ,in places. From sea-level to 1000 ft. In hilly districts almost throughout Britain. Europe.

93. Polygala vulgaris var. Ballii (Nyman). (Var. grandiflora Bab. P. grandiflora Druce. P. Babingtonii Druce). – This fine variety has been long known from the Ben Bulben range (422, 429) in Sligo and Leitrim (to 1700 ft.) and from Benevenagh (456) in Derry. G. C. Druce has recorded it also from Ardrahan in SE Galway and Inchnadamph in Sutherland (Irish Nat., 1912, 240) and Ostenfeld from the Faeroes (Bot. of the Faeroes, 71, 1901), but the identity of these plants with the Irish one appears somewhat doubtful. See A. Bennett, Journ. Bot., 1912, 228-9, and G. C. Druoe, ibid., 1913, 60-61.

94. Silent acaulis Linn. – Common on the Ben Bulben range, with outlying single stations in Mayo, Donegal, and Derry, 400-1600 ft. – a NW distribution characteristic of alpine and “Scottish” species in Ireland. Alpine in Britain. Circumpolar, in Arctic and northern regions.

95. Arenaria ciliata Linn. subsp. hibernica Ostenfeld and Dahl (plate 3). In Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 1917, 215-225, these authors distinguish the Ben Bulben plant under the name hibernica from subsp. pseudofrigida occurring in Arctic Europe, and subsp. norvegica (A. norvegica Gunnerus and auct. britt.) of Shetland and Arctic Europe and America, the three forming “Kollektivart” A. ciliata. The plant is of frequent occurrence on the W part of the Ben Bulben range in Sligo, on limestone rocks, 1200-1950 ft. (423). Found by E. Lhwyd in 1699 (Druce Com. Fl. Brit., 54); first recorded by J. T. Mackay in 1806.

96. Elatine Hydropiper Linn. – Was apparently confined to Lough Briclan and Lough Shark, Co. Down, and L. Neagh (465) until the making of the canals late in the 18th century, when it spread from L. Neagh along the Lagan Canal as far as Belfast, and (presumably from L. Shark) down the Newry Canal to Newry. Not seen recently in most of its old stations, but occupies 15 miles of the canal from Newry northward (see Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 102-4). First found in Ireland by William Thompson at Newry in 1836. Equally rare in England and Wales, though not quite so local. Widespread in Europe, but local; Siberia, N America.

97. Lavatera arborea Linn. – An aboriginal inhabitant of sea-rocks, with a present range much extended by introduction into cottage gardens. Indigenous in the S (Waterford to Clare), and in Wicklow, Dublin, Antrim, on cliffs and sea-stacks. Of doubtful standing elsewhere. Britain as far N as the Clyde. W and S coasts of Europe; N Africa, Canaries.

98. Erodium moschatum L 'llêrit. – A plant of uncertain standing, chiefly about roadsides and towns by the sea. Of 20 divisions (out of 40) in which it grows, only one (Offaly) is wholly inland. More frequent in Cork than elsewhere. Widespread in England and Wales. Widespread in Europe, N Africa, W Asia, America, N. Zealand.

99. Ulex europaeus f. strictus (Mackay). (Ulex strictus Mackay in Trans. Roy. Irish Acad., 14, 166, 1824 – 5 (nomen solum). U. europaeus var. strictus Mackay Fl. Hib.. 1, 74, 1836. U. hibernicus G. Don, Loudon's General System, 2, 148, 1832). – This curious juvenile form of U. europaus, soft, erect, with short branchlets and spines, and few flowers, was found at Mountstewart, Co. Down, by a Mr. Murray of Comber; he brought it into his nursery, where it was seen by John White, gardener at Glasnevin and author of the “The Grasses of Ireland” (1808), by whom it was introduced into cultivation (see Fl. NE Ireland, 34).

100. Medicago sylvestris Fr. (? M. falcata X sativa).Co. Dublin only – a large patch on dunes at Malahide, and a smaller patch at Portmarnock, 34 miles S (228). First recognised by Praeger in 1896 (Irish Nat., 1896, 249-251), but has grown at Portmarnock for at least 80 years (specimens in Herb. Nat. Mus., Dublin). See also Colgan Fl. Dublin, 55-6.

In Britain a very rare plant of the E counties of England. On the Continent local and rather western. Often set down as M. falcata X sativa. In Ireland, in the area where the plant occurs the former is a rare casual, the second a naturalized alien; M. sylvestris is there a very persistent perennial.

101. Astragalus danicus Retz. (A. hypoglottis Linn.). – Known only in Ireland from the Aran Islands in Galway Bay, where it was first found by R. Ball and Wm. Thompson in 1834. It appears to be limited there to Inishmore and Inishmaan, where it is a member of the peculiar calcicole flora of the bare limestones (352), spreading to sandy pastures. In Britain local, on gravelly and chalky soils from N Scotland to S England. Arctic – alpine in Europe; also in N Asia.

Clearly a relict species in Ireland from Glacial or early Postglacial times.

102. Trifolium glomeratum Linn. – SE coast only, in Wexford (Rosslare and Arthurstown) and Wicklow (riverside at Wicklow, where it was found for the first time in Ireland by D. Moore in 1869). S and SE England. SW and S parts of the Continent, from W France along the Mediterranean; W Asia, N Africa, Canaries.

103. Lathyrus palustris Linn. – Drainage has greatly reduced this plant on Lough Neagh, where it was formerly frequent. Elsewhere it has a number of stations confined to the Shannon and Erne basins, also outposts in Wicklow. (Compare the similar range of Sium latifolium). Middle England mostly. A northern circumpolar plant.

104. Lathyrus maritimus Bigel. – Another northern plant, clearly relict, known only from sand-dunes at Rossbeigh on the S side of the head of Dingle Bay. Recorded as long ago as 1756 (Smith: “History of Kerry,” 380) from the sands of Inch on the N shore close by, and seen at intervals, apparently in both stations, until 1845. Rediscovered at Rossbeigh in 1918 (Irish Nat., 1918, 113115). It grows there in fair quantity over a limited area. (See 318, also Scully Fl. Kerry, 72-4, and Irish Nat., l.c.) In. Britain down the E and SE coast from Shetland to Dorset. Elsewhere a northern and Arctic circumpolar plant.

105. Rubus. – Though much collecting has been done in this group, as by S. A. Stewart, H. W. Lett, C. H. Waddell, R. A. Phillips, R. W. Scully, E. S. Marshall, W. M. Rogers, and the writer, Irish brambles are still incompletely known. Their range and abundance seem to differ materially from what obtains in England, and Moyle Rogers has remarked en the fact that few species in Ireland tally exactly with their British analogues. A few noteworthy plants may be mentioned here:–
R. hesperius Rogers. – Chiefly in the W, apparently frequent. Very rare in Britain.
R. iricus Rogers. – In nine S and W divisions, from Cork to Mayo, and also Antrim. Type apparently endemic, but var. minor is found in Britain.
R. Lettii Rogers. – In Cavan, Armagh, Down, and half a dozen English counties.
R. adenanthus Boul. and Gill. – S and N Kerry and five British vice-counties.
R. mucronatoides Ley. – W Mayo and three English vice-counties only.
R. regillus Ley. – In N and S Kerry, also Down; and three vice-counties in Britain.
R. morganwgensis Barton and Riddelsdell. – In Down and some eight British vice-counties.
R. ochrodermis Ley. – In SE Galway and eight British vice-counties.

Among other Rubi rare in both Ireland and Britain are R. altiarcuatus, nemoralis, Questieri, Salteri, Wedgwoodia, thyrsiger, longithyrsiger, serpens, etc.

106. Dryas octopetala Linn. (plates 2, 20). – He who has viewed the thousands of acres of this Arctic-alpine plant in full flower on the limestones of the Burren region of Clare, from hill-top down to sea-level, has seen one of the loveliest sights that Ireland has to offer to the botanist. It has a second less continuous headquarters about Ben Bulben and northward, and single stations in Donegal, Derry, and Antrim. It is not certain that in its limited stations off the limestone in W Galway (391) and Donegal (445) the plant is actually in a non-calcareous soil, for the metamorphic rocks among which it' occurs may well yield a sufficiency of calcium by the decay of primitive limestone or of serpentine. In this connection see also 193. In outlying stations on limestone drift at Gentian Hill and Barna Head, west of Galway, as in Burren, it descends to sea-level. Its highest station in Ireland is only 1300 ft. (Slieve League in Donegal). First found by Rev. Richard Heaton before 1650 (How's “Phytologia”). In Britain from Wales to Orkney, mostly on mountains, and essentially a limestone plant. An Arctic-alpine circumpolar species: also in the Caucasus.

107. Potentilla fruticosa Linn. (plate 21). – On limestone rocks along the western edge of the Central Plain for about 40 miles from N Clare to E Mayo, locally abundant. N England on limestone, very local. A northern and alpine plant with a wide but local circumpolar range, S to the Himalayas and Caucasus.

108. Rosa. – Knowledge of Irish roses has not kept pace with recent work in England. Some existing records stand in need of revision, and further work is required. The only species which is known to have a definite local range in the country is R. micrantha, which is confined to Kerry and Cork. R. stylosa (var. systyla) (apparently southern and native – see Journ. Bot., 1934, 69). R. Afzeliana (= glauca), R. dumetorum, R. coriifolia, R. Sherardi omissa), and R. tomentella occur, but their range is not worked out yet. R. spinosissima, canina, tomentosa, arvensis are common, rubiginosa and mollis rather rarer. Among the hybrid forms, R. gracilescens and R. Moorei (rubiginosa X spinosissima), two very rare plants, are old north-eastern finds, and R. mayoensis (mollis X spinosissima) has been recently described (Wolley-Dod in Journ. Bot., 1924, 202) from Mayo and Sutherland. R. pilosa is Irish only, but the station is unknown. Two other hybrids are mentioned separately below, the first because of its essentially Irish history, the second because it is unknown elsewhere.

109. Rosa hibernica Templeton (R. dumetorum X spinossima). – This rose was first found between Belfast and Holywood in Down (474) in 1795 by John Templeton, who described it as a new species in 1802. Long looked on as R. canina X spinosissima, that combination is now attributed to the plant known as R. hibernica var. glabra Baker (X R. glabra Wolley-Dod). The “type” has been found about Tillysburn and Stranmillis near Belfast and (°?) Magilligan in Derry, R. glabra about Glenarm and Carnlough in Antrim, and Magilligan: also in Co. Limerick (Irish Nat., 1903, 250). Rare in Britain and on the Continent. See Templeton in Trans. Dublin Soc., 3, 162-4; J. Britten in Journ. Bot., 1907, 304-5, and Irish Nat., 1907, 309-10; H. W. Lett in Journ. Bot., 1907, 346-7; WolleyDod in Journ. Bot., 1931, Suppl., 14.

110. Rosa Praegeri Wolley-Dod (R. canina X rugosa). – A natural cross between the native R. canina and the Japanese R. rugosa, recently found at Cushendun in Antrim (Journ. Bot., 1928, 87-88). Not known elsewhere.

111. Sorbus Aria group. – The complicated group of forms formerly included in S. Aria have recently been found to be well represented in Ireland. S. anglica (S. Mougeotii var. anglica Hedlund), rare in W England, is Native at Killarney. S. rupicola is apparently quite rare, but ranges from Kerry to Antrim. Unexpectedly, S. porrigens (=S.hibernica), which like anglica is confined in Britain to the region of the Severn, proves to be the prevailing Irish plant, ranging from Kerry to Dublin and Sligo. S. Aria, very widespread in Britain, is so far in Ireland determined only from the neighbourhood of Galway. (See Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 50-52, also Salmon in Journ. Bot., 1930, 172-7.) More distinct is S. latifolia, first found by R. A. Phillips in 1908, occupying an area along the rivers Barrow and Nore above and below New Ross, and I believe native there (see Irish Nat., 1924, 129; Irish Nat. Journ., 4, 194), as the others undoubtedly are in the regions indicated.

112. Saxifraga nivalis Linn. – Among Arenaria, ciliata and other alpines on the cliffs of Annacoona in the Ben Bulben range (422), 1200-1950 ft. Only Irish station, where it was first found by John Wynne in 1837. In Britain in Wales, the Lake District, and the Highlands, in alpine situations. A northern circumpolar plant.

113. Saxifraga Geum Linn. – Confined in Ireland in its typical (pure) form to the SW (Kerry (except the north) and W. Cork (300)). Elsewhere in the Pyrenees, N Spain, Portugal; also reported from the Alps and Carpathians, but there is no reason to consider it native there. Observation points to the truth of Scully's suggestion that this is a decreasing species in Ireland, now tending to hybridize itself out of existence by crossing with the stronger S. spathularis (umbrosa auct.). This view is endorsed by its more recent discovery on Clare Island, Co. Mayo (the only station outside the district named), where it occurs sparingly not in its pure form, but in a hybrid state well known in the SW and representing a plant about two-thirds S. Geum and one third S. spathularis: and along with this on Clare Island (amid abundance of typical spathularis), are other plants about half-way between the two species. S. Geum sensu stricto is a plant “foliis reniformibus dentatis” (Linn. Sp. Pl. (ed. 2), 575). This is a well-marked form, varying little except in size and in the dentition of the leaves, which may be crenate or apiculate-crenate or truncate-crenate or quite sharply serrate with teeth about equilateral (i.e., with the base of the teeth equalling the sides). Authors subsequent to Linnaeus have often included under S. Geum forms in which the leaves are not reniform, only orbicular, the leaf-margins entering the petiole at about a right-angle. Forms of this facies (to which the Clare Island plant belongs) have several times been awarded separate names – S. polita Haworth, S. dentata Haworth, S. gracilis Mackay, S. elegans Mackay, but they must be looked on as of hybrid origin – the first step from Geum towards spathularis. S. hirsuta represents a further stage towards spathularis among the complicated hybrid progeny, being fairly intermediate between the parents. Thence other forms lead on to pure spathularis (see under that species). (See Scully Fl. Kerry, 125-6, also Praeger in Irish Nat., 1912, 205-6.)

First found by E. Lhwyd, in Kerry, in 1699.

114. Saxifraga spathularis Brotero. (S. umbrosa auct. non Linn. ) (plates 4, 34).—An abundant and characteristic plant at all elevations in the Kerry-Cork (300) and Galway-Mayo (384) mountain areas; more local in Donegal. Eastward it dies out before Cork city is reached, but reappears in the mountains of Waterford and S Tipperary (Galtees (250), Knockmealdown (284), Comeraghs (285)), with very interesting outlying stations on Luignaquilla and Conavalla in Wicklow (263). On the Continent it grows in the Pyrenees, N Spain, and Portugal. It is stated to occur (under the name umbrosa) in Corsica and the Alps, but Hegi and others look on it, as an escape in those places, and the plant intended is no doubt the strong-growing true S. umbrosa L., which is a hybrid Geum x spathularis form, a common plant of gardens.

In the absence of S. Geum, with which it crosses very freely, producing a multitude of puzzling forms, S. spathularis is in Ireland a plant of uniform facies. The most widespread form, which Dr. Scully takes as the Irish type, is “a compact fleshy plant with a rosette of spreading obovate leaves and short but broad footstalks”; his description cannot be improved upon.

The only distinguishable variant which appears to belong to pure spathularis is var. serratifolia (Mackay) (S. serrate Sternberg) with “long and rather narrow erect leaves and deep serrations”; in Kerry it is rarer than the other. Some extreme forms of it are found in gardens under several names.

Var. punetata (S. punctata Haworth) which is equally common, at least in Kerry, and has “roundish or slightly oblong leaves, more or less erect, with almost flat tapering footstalks” is considered by Dr. Scully, I think rightly, to represent the first stage showing the influence of crossing with S. Geum. Thence we pass through forms showing more Geum influence, to S. hirsuta Linn., which is fairly half-way between the two species. The forms nearer S. Geum have been referred to under that species (113).

Where S. Geum and S. spathularis grow together in the SW, each generally shows every conceivable gradation towards the other (plate 4); where spathularis alone occurs, as in Waterford, S Tipperary, W Galway, Donegal, it shows no variation in the direction of Geum; on the contrary, variation, when it occurs, tends to be away from Geum leaves more sharply toothed, blade smaller or narrower or more cuneate; observations converse to the above cannot be made, as there is no Irish area where Geum grows unaccompanied by spathularis.

While absolutely hardy on the highest mountain-summits in Ireland, the plant rejoices in a maximum of shade and moisture. In the Killarney woods, growing among Hymenophyllum, rosettes may be seen a foot across, bearing flowering stems a foot and a half in height.

A full and excellent account of these two species as found in Ireland, their varieties and hybrids, with plates, including an account of breeding experiments confirming views long expressed by botanists regarding hybridity in the group, is given by Dr. Scully in his "Flora of Kerry," 96-106. This convincing exposition is not so widely known as it ought to be : it is not referred to, for instance, in ENGLER and ??IR1ISCRER'S Monograph of Saxifraga in the "Pflanzenreich" series, though published two years after Dr. Scully's volume. The authors of the monograph describe many varieties and forms of both species which are without question merely hybrids.

115. According to the foregoing remarks, the Irish Robertsonian Saxifrages may be arranged as under, following closely Scully's interpretation: the series of 86 native leaf-forms which he figures should be studied in this connection:-

  1. S. Geum L. Leaves reniform.
    forma a. Margin crenate ( ? Robertsonia crenata Haworth). (Scully, pl. I, 1-4.)
    forma ß. Margin serrate (var. serrates Syme. ? R. dentata Haworth). (Scully, pl. I, 5-13.)
  2. S. spathularis Brot. Leaves obovate.
    forma a (typica). Leaves spreading, rather broadly obovate, moderately deeply serrate. (Scully, pl. VI, 14-16.)
    forma ß. serratifolia (Mackay). Leaves erect, long and narrower, deeply serrate. (Scully, pl. VI, 19-23.)
  3. Geum x spathularis. Leaves of many intermediate shapes. (Scully, pl. II, 1-34, III, 1-23, VI, 1-6.)
    Here belong:-
    S. elegans Mackay (S. spathularis var. punctata x Geum var. serrata (E. S. Marshall)).
    S. gracilis Mackay.
    S. polita Haworth.
    S. hirsuta L. (Scully, pl. III, 1-8.)
    S. punctata Haworth. (Scully, pl. VI, 10-12.)
116. Saxifraga Hirculus Linn. – Rare, in lowland peat-bogs in four midland counties, also in W Mayo, and at 1000 ft. in Antrim. In Britain equally rare, and mostly in Scotland. Elsewhere alpine-arctic and circumpolar.

117. Saxifraga hypnoides aggr. – Ireland is remarkably rich in hypnoid Saxifrages. Several are as yet unknown elsewhere, namely: S. Drucei E. S. Marshall (Brandon in Kerry, Arranmore in W Donegal). S. Sternbergii Willd. (plate 22) (Brandon in Kerry, Ballyvaughan, Black Head, and Aran in Clare, mostly as var. gracilis: a plant with a puzzling range – Ireland, Norway (one station), Harz, Bavaria). S. hirta Sm. (Kerry, frequent; Galtees and Clare (Aran)). S. affinis A. Don (Brandon in Kerry (Mackay, 1805) – not seen since). S. incurvifolia D. Don (Kerry (several stations), W Galway (Muckanaght)). S. hypnoides var. robusta E. S. Marshall (Black Head in Clare). In addition, S. rosacea Mcench (decipiens Ehrh.), which has only one British locality, occurs in several stations in Kerry, on the Twelve Bens in W. Galway, and on Clare I. in W Mayo. S. sponhemica and S. hypnoides are frequent, the former ranging over the Kerry and Waterford mountains and re-appearing in Antrim and Derry, the latter ranging from Clare round the west and north to Antrim and Wicklow. For further particulars see papers by E. S. Marshall in Journ. Bot., 1917 – 18.

118. Apium inundatum x nodiflorum (A. inundatum var. Moorei Syme Engl. Bot., 4,102, 1865, and Suppl., 187. A. Moorei Druce in Bot. Exch. Club Rep., 1911, 20-21). – This rather controversial plant is essentially an Irish form, occurring as at present known in 24 of the 40 divisions, from Limerick and Kildare to S Donegal and Antrim. Seems very rare in Britain, being on record from only four English vice-counties. According to Druce (Com. Fl. Brit.) it occurs in W Germany. This seems a strange distribution for a hybrid of which the parents have both a wide range, but Riddelsdell (Irish Nat., 1914, 1 – 11) in a full discussion makes out a very good case for hybridity. The plant varies towards nodiflorum (f. subnodifiorum), and towards the other parent (f. subinundatum). First found by David Moore near Portmore in Antrim about 1835.

119. Carum verticillatum Koch. – An essentially “Atlantic” species, on the Continent ranging down the W coast from Belgium southward, in Britain found along the W coast in England, Wales, and Scotland; in Ireland confined to the SW, where it is locally abundant, and to a few stations in W Donegal, Londonderry and Antrim.

120. Oenanthe pimpinelloides Linn Known only from pasture at Trabolgan in E Cork (293), presumably native. First found by R. A. Phillips in 1896. S England. Middle and S Europe, N Africa, Asia Minor.

121. Rubia peregrina Linn. – Up the W coast as far as Mweelrea, and the E coast as far as Meath. Never far from the sea, though not maritime. Flourishes equally on or off the limestone. Wales and S England. S Europe and NW Africa.

122. Inula salicina Linn. (plate 25). – A noteworthy plant, being one of the few, other than the Lusitanian and American groups, which are Irish but not British. It is confined to the limestone shores of Lough Derg (353 – 4), the largest of the expansions of the Shannon, in N Tipperary and SE Galway, where it was first found by David Moore in 1843 (Journ. Bot., 1865, 333 – 5, and ibid., 1866, 33 – 36, tab. 43). Rather widespread on the shores and islets, at a little above flood-level, from the head of the lough a Portumna as far S as the-vicinity of the Carrikeen Islands, near Dromineer. Not yet recorded from the S portion of the lake. Its habitat is the rough grassy, stony, or boulder – strewn ground that intervenes between flood – level and the arboreal zone (plate 26). There it runs about by stolons, forming small colonies, and flowering rather sparingly in July. In the garden it spreads rapidly, and soon forms a large patch, with a network of slender white underground stems. It is not yet fully known what effect the Shannon Electricity Works, by which the water of the lake is raised to about winter level, may have on the plant, but there is little reason to fear for it. Widespread on the Continent, from Greece to Norway and W France to central Russia and on into Asia; and in view of its presence in Ireland its absence from Britain is difficult to explain.

123. Diotis maritima Cass. (D. candidissima Desf.) (plate 7). – SE coast – Waterford (not seen recently) and Wexford (278), where dt, still exists in some quantity, First found by J. G. Allman in 1845. In Britain southern, on coasts from Suffolk to Anglesea, discontinuous and now very nearly extinct. A plant of the Mediterranean, extending to Portugal and the Canaries. For a full account of the plant in Britain and Ireland, with good photographs taken in its Wexford habitat (one of them reproduced here), see C. P. Hurst in “Manchester Memoirs,” 1901 – 2, 1 – 8, pl. 1 – 2.

124. Artemisia Stelleriana Bess. – This ornamental Siberian plant, thrown out from the gardens of St. Anne's at Clontarf, Co. Dublin, before 1891, drifted across to the adjoining sand-spit of the North Bull (228), and is naturalized there now over a distance of at least a couple of miles (though apparently rare of late), See Moffat in Journ. Bot., 1894, 22 and 104 – 106; Areschoug, ibid., 70 – 75; Colgan Fl. Dublin, 110 – 111; and Journ. Bot., 1900, 317 – 8. Naturalized in Cornwall, New York, Kamtschatka (Druce).

125. Senecio squalidus x vulgaris. – The S European Senecio squalidus, naturalized and abundant about Cork (291), where it appeared about a century ago (and has since spread to many Cork towns, and recently to Dublin). hybridizes freely at Cork and sparingly at Dublin with S. vulgaris, giving rise by continued crossing to a progeny stretching from the one species to the other, complicated at Cork by the frequent presence of S. vulgaris var. radiates. Its nomenclature is involved – see Burbidge in Irish Nat., 1897, 300, and Phillips, ibid., 1898, 22. At Maryborough a small colony of S. squalidus has produced crosses with S. Jacobcea.

126. Senecio cineraria x jacobaea (S. albescens Burbidge and Colgan). – The Mediterranean S. Cineraria, escaped from a garden at Dalkey, Co. Dublin, has colonized the rocky shore in abundance for nearly a mile. Here it crosses freely with S. Jacobaea, the hybrids showing every gradation from one species to the other – see 233. Similar crossing has been recorded where the plant has run wild in SW England.

127. Cnicus palustris X pratensis (C. Forsteri Smith). – Not uncommon where the parents grow together: recorded from Clare, Carlow, Leix, Dublin, SE Galway, Westmeath, E Mayo, Londonderry. See Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 24, B, 72 (1902).

128. Hieracium – Irish Hieracia have been tolerably well worked, and the older names revised according to modern knowledge. The Hawkweed flora is fairly rich. Three “species” – H. Scullyi Linton (S Kerry), H. Stewartii F. J. Hanb. (Down), and H. sttbintegrum Stenstr. (N. Kerry) are, so far as at present known, in the British Isles confined to Ireland. Among other rare Irish forms are:– H. flocculosum Backh. (Down, Antrim), proximum F. J. Hanb. (Kildare, Wicklow, E Donegal), scoticum F. J. Hanb. (W. Donegal), Leyi F. J. Hanb. (Derry), repandum Ley (Sligo), orimeles W. R. Linton (S and N Kerry, E and W Donegal), hypochccroides Gibson (W. Cork, Clare, W Mayo, Sligo, Louth), hibernicum F. J. Hanb. (Down and E Donegal), lepistoides Johanss. var. sublepistoides Zahn (N. Kerry, Limerick, Down), grandidens Dahlst. (Down), cinderella Ley (Down), pachyphyllaides Zahn (Antrim, Derry), killinense Zahn (Antrim), sagittatum Lindeb. (Down), maculosum Dahlst. (Dublin), crebridens Dahlst. (Clare), cymbifolium Purchas (Clare, Sligo), cordigerum Norrl. (Derry), farrense F. J. Hanb. (Wicklow, Antrim), orarium Lindeb. (W. Mayo, Antrim), senescens Backh. (Down), sparsifolium Lindeb. (S. Kerry), strictum Fr. (Wicklow, Antrim, Derry), dunuosum Jord. (Wicklow). The most widespread forms in Ireland are anglicum (in 20 divisions), iricum (16), triviale (17), umbellatum (18).

129. Arbutus unedo Linn. (plate 13). – The most striking and handsome of the Hiberno-Lusitanian group, forming in the Killarney woods (322) and at Lough Gill (420) not a bush, as usual along the Mediterranean, but a tree up to 30 or 35 ft. in height when growing among other trees, or with a rounded form and a height of up to 20 ft. in the open. Scully mentions boles 12-14 ft. in circumference, but the tree mostly branches widely from near the base, and trunks of any length are rare. The Arbutus is essentially lowland, the highest station on record being 525 ft. in Kerry. It shows no preference as to soil (provided the soil is dry) growing equally on bare limestone and on bare sandstone or metamorphic rocks, or in woodland humus, or peat. While in the woods and on the islands of the Lakes of Killarney it is still abundant, it has generally been greatly reduced in quantity and in range in the south-west by being cut for iron-smelting in the 18th century and earlier; it still extends sparingly and discontinuously as far as Lough Currane to the SW, and Adrigole and Glengarriff to the S. By place-names which embody the Irish name of the Arbutus (caithne and cuinche) we are enabled to trace its former extension as far N as Mayo, and recently (Proc. R. Irish Acad., 41, B, 105-113, 1932) I have endeavoured to show that it is undoubtedly indigenous on Lough Gill in Sligo, where many very old trees occupy chinks in limestone rocks and elsewhere in wild situations among a native tree-flora (see 420). A gap of 160 miles separates the Kerry and Sligo stations. An attempt to find intermediate habitats on the Galway – Mayo lakes was unsuccessful. The islets in L. Mask and L. Corrib, mostly drift-covered, have a different aspect and a different vegetation. The S end of L. Conn seemed much more likely. There the pointer plants Taxus and Sorbus rupicola, which are its companions at Killarney and L. Gill, grow on the rocky lake-margin, backed by dense oak-wood, with a vegetation closely recalling that of its Kerry and Sligo habitats; but Arbutus does not appear to be there now. The earliest mention of Arbutus in human records dates back to the eighth century. In the Brehon Laws (IV, 147) it is included among the classified lists of trees interference with which constitutes trespass:– “The Shrub trees are; black thorn, elder, spindle tree, white hazel, aspen, arbutus, test-tree.” Caithne is the word there used for Arbutus. The first printed record is in Parkinson's “Theatrum Botanicum,” 1489-90 (1640).

South of its Irish stations, its next appearance is on the Brittany coast-cliffs of Trieux near Paimpol in Cotes du Nord; it re-appears on the coasts of SW France, and extends across the Pyrenees and along the whole length of the Mediterranean.

An excellent and very full notice of Arbutus is given in Scully's “Flora of Kerry,” 179-183.

130. Erica Mackaii. Hooker. (E. Mackaiana Bab.) (plate 29). – The most limited in range of the HibernoLmsitanian plants. It occurs in W Galway over a couple of square miles from Urrisbeg to Craigga-more Lough 4 miles W of N of Roundstone, and in a slightly different form over an undetermined area on the E side of Carna, 6½” miles SE of Roundstone. At Craigga-more (389), where it was discovered by William M` Alla prior to 1835 (see Companion to Bot. Mag., 1835, 158), it is quite abundant. A double form, with the stamens converted into petals, giving the flowers a very obese appearance, was collected at Craigga-more by A. G. More in 1869 (fine specimens in Herb. Nat. Mus., Dublin), and again by F. C. Crawford of Edinburgh in 1901, after whom it has been called E. Crawfordii.

At that place, and southward towards Urrisbeg, it hybridizes rather freely with Tetralix, forming E. Praegeri Ostenfeld in New Phytol., 1912, 120.

E. Stuartii Linton in Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist., 1902, 176177 and Irish Nat., 1902, 177 – 178 is diagnosed as E. Mackaii x mediterranea – I have no doubt correctly. It was found (one clump) at Craigga-more (389) by Charles Stuart of Chirnside, Edinburgh, in 1901,41 growing with Mackaii: E. mediterranea has its nearest station on Urrisbeg 3 miles to the south. The plant is, like Crawfordii and Praegeri, in cultivation.

E. Mackaii has been very variously placed by botanists, most often as a variety of E. Tetralix, but it is undoubtedly entitled to rank as a distinct species. This is to my mind finally proved by the study of the leaf-anatomy of this group of Erica by Miss Margaret Smith, published (in part) in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., 30, 198-205 (1930). In Mackaii, alone of the Irish Heaths, the upper epidermal cells have a transverse septum, dividing each into two approximately equal parts. In E. mediterranea and E. Tetralix this remarkable character is absent. In E. Crawfordii it is present, showing that this curious plant has been correctly interpreted as E. Mackaii flore pleno. In E. Praegeri and E. Stuartii it is present in half of the epidermal cells, the other half being undivided, pointing along with other characters to crossing between Mackaii and other species, which others are undoubtedly Tetralix and mediterranea respectively. By the kindness of Miss Smith I am able to reproduce here (fig. 11) some of the drawings which illustrate her paper. First found by Wm. M`Alla before 1835. Outside Ireland E. Mackaii is confined to the Pyrenean region. A useful discussion of it is to be found in Duriteus' “Iter Asturicum Botanicum” (see Lacaita in Journ. Bot., 1929, 256-258).

131. E. mediterranea Linn. (E. hibernica Syme. E. mediterranea var. hibernica Hooker) (plate 35). – Has a fairly wide range in the great Galway – Mayo bog area (384), extending from Urrisbeg near Roundstone northward at intervals to the Mullet and Lough Conn, growing best where the peat is well drained – at Mallaranny over six ft. in height.

A plant of wet boggy ground, generally sloping but of no great elevation. Particularly fond of the edges of streamlets and lakes. Usually forms scrubby rounded bushes about 2 It. in height, easily picked out from among the other heaths by the erect twigs and spreading leaves. Often commences to flower in January. At its best in April; frequently flowers sparingly in autumn. The flower-buds of the following season are already well developed in September. The plant sometimes suffers severely from winter sea-winds in its maritime stations. In 1931 it was much blasted about Mallaranny, so that there was practically no blossom in that spring. In Erris and Achill a dark-flowered dwarf form occurs; but when grown in the garden alongside the typical plant for a few years, very little difference is perceptible. First found by J. T. Mackay in 1830 on Urrisbeg.

Not in Great Britain. Elsewhere confined to Portugal, NW Spain, and SW France. Its hybrid with E. Mackaii is referred to in the preceding paragraph (130).

132. Dabeocia cantabrica K. Koch. (D. polifolia D. Don. Menziesia polifolia Juss.) (plate 27). – Confined to the Galway – Mayo metamorphic mass (384). Widely spread in W Galway; local in Mayo, from near Cong to Killery and Curraun Achill. To 1900 ft. on Maamtrasna and 1800 ft. on the Twelve Bens; on very exposed heaths in W Connemara it grows down to the edge of the Atlantic. Absent from Britain, but occurs in SW France, Spain (where in the Pyrenees it flourishes on ground under snow for five months of the year (see Irish Nat., 1909, 3)) and the Azores.

Commences to flower in May, and blooms all through the summer into late autumn. In nature a rather straggling plant, growing best when trailing through other shrubby species, such as Erica, Rubus or Ulex Galii (as in plate 27). Its limit of altitude in Ireland and Spain (supra) shows that, like Saxifraga spathularis, it is not a tender species, despite its southern range. The sepals are very variable in the Irish plant, being broad-based or narrow-based, entire or with several acuminate teeth near the apex ending in gland-tipped hairs.

A white-flowered form is long in cultivation, as well as a purple and white form known as bicolor; the former is figured in Sweet “British Flower Garden,” 6, t. 276.

133. Limonium humile Mill. – In almost every maritime division in Ireland, often abundant. Rather southern in Britain, being in Scotland confined to the S. The segregate transwallianum has been found in Clare (350) and L. paradoxum in Donegal (452).

134. Microcala filiformis Hoffingg. and Link. – SW only, locally abundant from Skibbereen to Dingle Bay, 0-800 ft. First found by W. H. Harvey in 1845. In England south-western likewise, along the coast from Pembroke to Sussex, with a station in Norfolk. Europe, rather western; Azores. Scully (Fl. Kerry, 194-5) gives a good account of it.

135. Gentiana verna Linn. (plate 24). – A plant of the western limestones, sometimes very abundant, from Clare (Ennis) up to Mayo (Lough Carra), W to the Aran Islands, and E to beyond Athenry. Ranges from 0 to 1000 ft., but mostly quite lowland. First found in Ireland by Richard Heaton, and recorded in How's “Phytologia,” 1650. Sub-alpine in England, on limestone in the N. Rather widespread on the mountains of Europe and nearer Asia.

Very rare off the limestone, but grows on peaty road-side banks on the shales, 700-800 ft. elevation, between Ballyvaughan and Lisdoonvarna. Its occurrence in profusion on sea-sands near Ballyvaughan (plate 23) cannot rank as an exception to its calcicole proclivities.

Increases vegetatively by slender underground shoots proceeding from a central rootstock, thus making in open ground patches a foot across with 50 to 100 flowering stems, representing a single individual.

136. Linaria repens x vulgaris (L. sepium Allman). – An interesting hybrid, originally claimed as a new species, which grows plentifully by the river at Bandon (295), Co. Cork, accompanied by the parents. First found by G. J. Allman before 1843 (Watson in Hooker's Lond. Journ. Bot., 1842, 76-86; Allman in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 2, 404-406 (1843); Babington in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., 5, 20-22, 64 (1858) and Ann. and Mag. Nat. list. (2), 14, 408-411 (1854), 16, 449-450 (1855)). Occurs also at Killowen in Down with the parents.

137. Sibthorpia europea Linn. – South-western: confined to the Dingle Peninsula (324) in Kerry, 0-1700 ft. First found by J. T. Mackay in 1805. In Britain also south-western (Sussex to S Wales). South-western in Europe (W France, Spain, Portugal).

138. Veronica peregrina Linn. – Thoroughly naturalized in Donegal, Derry, and Tyrone. Rare and seemingly only sporadic elsewhere, in various counties in the N half of Ireland. An American species which has colonized widely on the Continent, but so far has had little success in Britain.

139. Euphrasia brevipila x salisburgensis. – By Lough Coura in Offaly (246). Definitely so named by F. Townsend as a new hybrid (Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 24, B, 78, 1902). As E. salisburgensis is not known so far E in Ireland (its nearest station lying some 45 miles to the W) further investigation is desirable.

140. E. frigida Pugsley. – Summit of Croaghaun (2192 ft.) in Achill Island (408); several other northern forms (Cochlearia grcenlandica, Hypericum pulchrum var. procumbens Rostrup) grow on the same hill. Collected in 1904-5 by R. Ll. Praeger and named foulaensis by F. Townsend (Irish Nat., 1904, 285; 1906, 43). A subarctic plant known in Britain from Yorkshire and Scotland (see Pugsley: “Revision of the British Euphrasiae,” Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bet.), 48, 490, 1930).

141. E. salisburgensis Funk (plate 28). – A characteristic plant of the low western limestones, extending continuously from Askeaton in Limerick to Lough Mask in Mayo, including the Aran Islands, and reappearing on the limestone hills of Sligo, Leitrim, and Fermanagh, and on low-lying limestones south of Donegal town (fig. 12). Mostly on bare limestone rocks or cliffs, but sometimes on walls, sand-dunes or non-calcareous rocks (as on the Ca1p at Inchicronan L. in Clare, with such calcifuge species as Digitalis and Athyrium). First found by Daniel Oliver on Inishmore in 1852 (F. Townsend in Journ. Bot., 1896, 441-4, tab. 363; ibid., 1897, 471-3, tab. 376, 380. N. Colgan in Irish Nat., 1897, 105-8, and Journ. Bot., 1897, 196-9. H. W. Pugsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.), 48, 532-4, pl. 37).

FIG. 12. – RANGE OF Euphrasia salisburgensis.

This plant is easily recognised in the field by its dwarf bushy growth, characteristic colour, and jagged upper leaves. In vigorous plants the lowest branches are themselves much branched, and almost as long as the main stem, so that a dense roundish bush is produced. The leaves in exposed places assume a beautiful coppery brown. The plant has a habit of growing in dense clumps, composed of many individuals, on little bare dry patches of ground. The flowers are of medium size, mainly white, and stand out conspicuously against the dark foliage.

Especially luxuriant bushy plants 2½” high and 12” in circumference sometimes grow among Thymus on small ant-hills of a minute yellow ant – which one might expect to be a distinctly acid habitat – the “earthing up” done by the ants apparently stimulating growth (Irish Nat., 1906, 259-60). In Aran, Sedum anglicum is characteristic of the same habitat – see 352. I cannot separate var. hibernica Pugsley, l.c., – see Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 42, B, 75.

Hitherto unknown in Britain, E. salisburgensis has recently been found in Yorkshire (Pugsley, Lc.). Druce's Devon record (Com. Fl. Brit. I.) is erroneous (Pugsley in Journ. Bot., 1933, 90). On the Continent widespread, usually alpine, not confined to calcareous rocks.

142. Bartsia viscosa Linn. – With a rather wide though local foreign range – W and S Europe, N Africa, W Asia, Canaries – this plant is in Great Britain markedly southern and western (Sussex to Argyll). In Ireland it is also conspicuously southern and western – through Waterford, Cork, Kerry continuously, and then disconnected stations in Galway, Donegal, and Derry. But only in the SW does it become common.

143. Orobanche rubra Smith. – Marginal and mainly northern, though it occurs in Kerry and Cork. More frequent in Burren and on the basaltic area of the NE than elsewhere, but is found on all kinds of rock, 0 – 1000 ft. First found in the British Isles by John Templeton on the Cave Hill, Belfast, before 1793. In Britain chiefly on the W coast from N Scotland to S England. Middle and S Europe, W Asia. Parasitic on Thymus only apparently.

144. Utricularia intermedia Hayne. – A plant which, like its ally Pinguicula lusitanica, is much more abundant in Ireland than in Britain, occurring in 23 of the 40 divisions, mostly in the centre and W. First found in the British Isles by Dr. Robert Scott in Fermanagh about 1804. Very seldom flowers. Generally in bog – pools with a soft muddy bottom, in which the colourless bladder – bearing branches burrow deeply. In Britain widely spread, but very rare. Of northern range in Europe., Asia, and America.

145. Pinguicula grandiflora Lam. (plate 9 and fig. 13). – The most attractive of the Hiberno – Lusitanian species, and most botanists who have seen it in its glory in Kerry and Cork will endorse the opinion of Dr. Scully that it is the most beautiful member of the Irish flora. The plant grows in extraordinary profusion over wide areas on bog, wet rocks, and damp pastures, with rosettes of yellow leaves up to 2½” long by 1½” broad, and numerous great flowers of imperial purple an inch or more across (up to 1.3 inch !) on stems 6” to 9” high.

With a tolerably wide SW Continental range – W France, N Spain, Portugal, Swiss and French Alps – P. grandiflora is abundant throughout W Cork and Kerry, thinning out northward to the Shannon, and eastward as far as Mallow. Extends from sea – level to 2250 ft. First definitely found by James Drummond in 1809. “Butterwort” is mentioned in Smith's “History of Kerry,” p. 85 (1756), as abundant on islands at the head of Kenmare River, and no doubt this species is intended.

The insectivorous features of the plant are not confined to the leaves. The flowering stem, the calyx, and the outside of the lower corolla – lobe bear glandular hairs among which insects may be found entangled, and are no doubt digested.

Plants with white and with pale lilac flowers have been recorded, and I have thrice found a few plants bearing purplish – pink blossoms.

P. grandiflora appears to be an enterprising species, quite ready to colonize new ground. There is no evidence of any recent extension of its natural range. but half a dozen roots introduced in 1879 to boggy ground at Killanne near the foot of Blackstairs in Wexford had increased in 1913 to 95 plants (Irish Nat., 1896, 212), but it has since disappeared (see 271). It grows on a dripping cliff at Lisdoonvarna in Clare (345), where at first I thought it native (Irish Nat., 1903, 269; 1907, 242); but there is reason to think it has come from a garden just above; it is still increasing. H. C. Hart records (Fl. Don., 214, 1898) that the plant “has established itself thoroughly in peat – bogs at Carrablagh” on Lough Swilly in Donegal, but it has not been seen there recently. In Cornwall it was planted an Tremethick moor by Ralfs, and when it was in danger of extermination by collectors, in spite of very rapid increase, plants were transferred to Trungle moor and the Land's End district, where they are reported to have “multiplied with marvellous speed” (Davey Fl. Cornwall, 345 – 6 (1909)). These “forgeries of nature's signature” are much to be regretted.

In Kerry P. grandiflora hybridizes readily with P.vulgaris (fig. 13). The cross is not common on account of the remarkable rarity in that area of the latter species. One sees ten thousand P. grandiflora for one P. vulgaris. But wherever P. vulgaris occurs among its ally, and only there, hybrid forms may be found – corolla about ¾” across (intermediate between the ½” of vulgaris and the 1” or more of grandiflora), corolla – lobes much larger and edges less divergent than in vulgaris, but not with overlapping undulate margins as in grandiflora, and the white patch on the corolla – throat intermediate in shape between the long cuneate form found in grandiflora, and the broad short form of vulgaris. With these there may often be found forms nearer one or the other parent, presumably arising from secondary crossing. (Praeger in Journ. Bot., 1930, 249.) Druce (Com. Fl. Brit. I., 229) has called the hybrid P. Scullyi.

146. Pinguicula lusitanica Linn. – One of the! plants, which, while occurring in both Ireland and Britain, is much more widespread in the former. Recorded from 33 of the 40 Irish divisions, from sea – level to 1000 ft., being an apparent absentee only from some lowland inland counties. In Britain in SW England, Isle of Man, and W Scotland alone. On the Continent south – western, in W France, Spain, Portugal.

147. Galeopsis intermedia Vill. – Has been found in Leix (Emo) and Meath (Bective) but appears very rare. Very rare also in Britain.

148. Teucrium Scordium Linn. – Along the Shannon from Roosky in Leitrim to Doonass above Limerick, often abundant, particularly on L. Ree (379) and L. Derg (253). Also in outlying stations at Ballyspillane L. in N Tipperary and Glanquin in Clare (361). Always on limestone. England – very rare, chiefly in the E. Widespread in Europe; Siberia.

149. Ajuga pyramidalis Linn. (plate 3). – Around Galway Bay only: on limestone in Burren (346) and the Aran Islands (352) on basalt at Bunowen in Connemara (388), from about 50 to 200 ft. Crosses in Burren with A. reptans (Journ. Bet., 1926, 31). First found by D. Moore, 1854. In Britain from Westmorland northward. Widespread in Europe, mostly northern and sub – alpine; Caucasus.

150. Oxyria digyna Hill. – On the S and W mountains – the Galtees and those of Cork – Kerry, Galway – Mayo, Ben Bulben, and W Donegal, 550 – 3150 ft. In Britain on mountains from Wales northward, not common. An arctic – alpine plant elsewhere.

151. Euphorbia Peplis Linn. – Once found at Garraris Cove, near Tramore, Waterford (273), by Miss Trench in 1839 (Mackay in Proc. Dublin Univ. Zool. and Bet. Assoc., 1, 1859). Not seen since, though several times searched for (see Cyb. Hib., ed. 2, 520). Very rare in England, on sandy shores from S Wales to Hants; a decreasing species. From France southward and along the Mediterranean, reappearing on Asiatic salt-tracts.

152. Euphorbia Paralias Linn. – Whole E coast, but very rare on the W (N Kerry, Clare, W Galway). In Britain rare and southern on the E side, commoner on the W, absent from Scotland. SW and S coasts of Europe.

153. Euphorbia portlandica Linn. – In Ireland distributed like the last. W and S coasts of Britain, from S Scotland southward. Has a “Lusitanian” range on the Continent – – W France and the Peninsula.

154. Euphorbia hiberna Linn. (plate 10). – An Atlantic. Mediterranean plant, its Irish habitats linked with its Continental ones (France and Spain to Switzerland and Italy) by stations in Cornwall, Devon, and Somerset. In Ireland it has an extended S and W range – Waterford, Cork, Kerry, and Limerick continuously, and isolated stations in Galway, Mayo, Donegal. In the SW it grows in profusion in rough pastures, hedgerows and woods, mostly lowland, but rising to 1800 ft. in Kerry. Adare in Limerick (not recently confirmed, but well vouched for) is the only station on the limestone. E. hiberna has long been used in Ireland by poachers to kill fish by placing bundles of crushed stems in streams. A good example of its poisonous properties is given in a letter from Francis Vaughan to John Ray dated April 24, 1697 (Corresp. of John Ray (Ray Soc., 1848)), and the results of a full experimental enquiry into its effects on salmonoid fishes, by H. M. Kyle, are published in Proc. Roy. Soc., 70 (1902), 48-66.

The appearance of the plant in summer is often marred by a profusion of Uromyces tuberculatus, which results in spindly growth and gives a golden colour to the leaves and stems.

155. Spiranthes gemmipara Lindley. – It is over 120 years now since James Drummond, Curator of the Cork Botanic Garden, added to the European flora one of its most interesting members. Long known as S. Ramanzoffiana, it has recently been replaced under its older name of gemmipara, while its companion plant, found much later in Armagh and other northern counties, and at first identified as the same, is now separated as S. stricta. Drummond's station was at Berehaven in W Cork (296), where the plant has been seen frequently since. Dunmanway and Desert, further to the E, were subsequently” added as additional stations; and recently (1921 and after) it has been found by several observers about West Cove in the Derrynane area (314) of S Kerry, 12 miles NW of Berehaven. Its general distribution is at present uncertain pending the working out of the North American segregates.

It has been erroneously recorded from Devon (Journ. Bot., 1909, 385), and its being in fact gemmiparous has been questioned – without reason so far as the Irish plant is concerned.

156. Spiranthes stricta Nelson (plate 41). – The northern form of the Irish “S. Romanzoffiana” has been determined (see under S. gemmipara) as S. stricta Nelson. It occupies the basin of the Bann, from above Portadown, all round Lough Neagh (462, 465), and down to Coleraine (462), growing in cut-away bog, damp meadows and on wet stony lake-shores. See (e.g.) Tomlinson in Irish Nat., 1907. 311-4

The plant is like some other orchids (e.g., Ophrys apifera) a very uncertain flowerer. On Brackagh Bog near Portadown (its original Irish station) in 1931 over 200 blooms were counted. In 1932 three persons searching for an hour saw only three. It is affirmed that in 1930 blossom was much more abundant than in 1931, and that the bog was “white with them.”

First found by Praeger above Portadown in 1892 (Journ. Bot., 1892, 272-4). In Britain known only from Colonsay, where it was recently discovered (Journ. Bot., 1930, 346). Unknown in Continental Europe. Widespread in northern N America.

Papers on these two Spiranthes, by Col. Godfery, with figures of the northern and southern plants will be found in “Orchid Review,” 1922, 261-3, and 1930, 291-5.

157. Epipactis atropurpurea Raf. (E. atrorubens Schultz). – On the western limestones from S Clare to Cong, growing in crevices of the bare rock, 0-1000 ft. Similar habitats in Britain, from Devon to N Scotland, very local. Europe, Caucasus, Persia.

158. Neotinea intacta Reichb. fie. (Habenaria intacta Benth.) (plate 2). – Essentially a plant of the bare limestone “pavements,” but occurs also on calcareous sea-sands and occasionally on non-calcareous rocks (Coal-measure shales 6 to 8 miles off the limestone near Lehinch in Clare (Irish Nat., 1901, 143), and on Silurian or metamorphic rocks at Mount Gable near Cong). The plant is abundant in the Burren region in Clare and SE Galway, and extends along the limestone shores of L. Corrib and L. Mask to L. Carra. There are interesting outliers in SW Connemara, on limy sands or light moory soil overlying the acid rocks (Irish Nat., 1906, 260; 1907, 243) (fig. 14); it is strange that it does not occur on the. Aran Islands. First found by Miss F. M. More at Castle Taylor, Galway, in 1864 (D. Moore in Journ. Bot., 1864, 228, and A. G. More in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., 8, 265 (1865). See also H. G. Reichenbach, Journ. Bot., 1865, 1-5, tab. 25). Unknown in Britain. On the Continent from W France around the Mediterranean to Asia Minor and the Canaries.

Neotinea appears above ground in October, sending up first one and then another short, broad, acute glaucous leaf, which can withstand hard frost. Flowers in the middle of May. In summer easily recognised by the short fruit with close-ranked capsules, which is dead and dry by the end of June, but persists till autumn if not trampled.

FIG. 14. – Range of Neotina intacta.

The commoner Irish form, which H. W. Pugsley has recently named var. straminea, has unspotted leaves and wholly greenish-white flowers. What must rank as the type is rarer: it is a more robust plant with glaucescent darker green leaves faintly spotted with purple and flowers of which the sepals are veined or shortly striped with dull purple and the lip marked towards the base with purplish pink in dots, blotches or short stripes. As the records are founded in many cases on fruiting plants or on dried specimens, the separate range of the two forms cannot be given accurately. The spotted plant is not uncommon in Burren and SE Galway along with var. straminea; it was the second which I collected in SW Connemara. In no case does the Irish plant bear flowers of a uniform pink colour, as shown in several well-known figures (e.g., “English Botany,” ed. 3; Reichenbach in Journ. Bot., 1865). R. A. Phillips has noted both forms near Menlo in NE Galway. Pugsley's recent paper on the Irish plant (Journ. Bot., 72, 54-5) should be consulted.

158a. Orchis O'Kellyi Druce. – There is confusion about this plant. The Orchis first observed by P. B. O'Kelly in Clare, and pointed out by him to many botanists, which he called O. maculata var. immaculata, is a handsome white variety of O. elodes. This is the plant which Druce was shown, and which he proposed to name after the finder: but by inadvertence white Fuchsii was sent to him. by O'Kelly, and his description refers to this. The other is a handsome and distinct plant, characterized by its slightly glaucous unspotted leaves and its very fragrant flowers with buff anthers. O. O'Kellyi of Druce does not appear to be worth a separate name; the other is more distinct, and might have a varietal name under O. elodes, but it needs further observation. It is abundant in Burren. See Irish Nat., 1933, 143 (where, however, it is called O'Kellyi).

159. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. (S. anceps Cay.) (plate 11). – The status of this plant in Ireland has often been impugned on account of its known rapid increase following introduction in places as far apart as Germany, Norway, and Queensland. But in Ireland its habitats and distribution afford no suggestion of this kind. It never occurs about houses, gardens, or places of traffic, but affects old marshy meadows and hill-sides where the flora is strictly native, many of its stations being remote from all human influence. First found by James Lynam in 1845 near Woodford in SE Galway (Phytol., 1846, 500) and later in S Kerry (Journ. Bot., 1882, 8), it has since been shown to be widespread in Kerry and to occur also in W Cork, Clare, Tipperary, Sligo, Leitrim, Fermanagh, W Donegal, with a. suspicious station in Antrim (Irish Nat., 1916, 187) – a wide western range in wild ground, very unlikely for an introduced species. Dr. Scully, who has studied the plant for a long period in its Kerry head-quarters, considers it native there, and points out that in 20 years it has not increased in stations which have been under observation (Fl. Kerry, 283-4). My own view coincides with his. Another objection is based on the alleged ease with which it spreads from gardens. In Ireland evidence of this is absent. Indeed, R. M. Barrington records (Irish Nat., 1904, 208) that seeds scattered during three different years in suitable moist coarse meadow by the Enniskerry River in Wicklow failed to produce plants. The suspicious station by L. Neagh in Antrim seems an exception, but need not disturb us; the same thing occurs in the ease of Saxifraga Geum, Pinguicula grandiflora, Leucojum aestivum and other rare indigenous plants which are also occasionally grown in gardens. Outside Ireland the plant as a native is confined to temperate N America. It has escaped in a number of places in S England.

160. Sisyrinchium californicum Ait. – The case of this species is different from that of the last. Also an American plant (and unknown elsewhere in Europe), it grows in some abundance over an area of flat marshy rushy meadow-land, one mile N of Rosslare station in Wexford (278). First found here by E. S. Marshall, who in spite of all difficulties considered it indigenous – or if not, then deliberately planted, which appears equally improbable (see Journ. Bot., 1896, 366); his later view was that it is a case of survival, not introduction (ibid., 1898, 49). See also A. B. Rendle, ibid., 1896, 494-5, tab. 364. A native of California and Oregon. Its presence in Ireland is difficult to account for, but it is almost certainly an introduction.

161. Leucojum aestivum Linn. (plate 17). – A plant whose standing has been often questioned because it is grown in gardens, but E. S. Marshall, who first found it in Ireland in the marshes of the Slaney, thought it undoubtedly native there, a view also held by M. C. Knowles and R. A. Phillips, who studied its distribution in the Shannon marshes about Limerick and generally, in an exhaustive paper. I think there can be little doubt that it is indigenous in the stations above-mentioned, and probably also by the Little Brosna river in Tipperary and Offaly, and in Waterford, Leix, Tyrone, and Antrim. The authors of the paper referred to pertinently point out that L. pulchellum, a near ally, which is also much cultivated, has never been found “wild” in Ireland; they draw the conclusion that L. aestivum, instead of being an escape, has been brought into gardens from native stations. Southern England, Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor.

162. Asparagus maritimus Mill. – A very rare plant of the Wicklow, Wexford, and Waterford coasts (272), with only four recent stations; it was evidently more abundant on the SE coast in former times. First recorded by C. Smith (“History of Waterford”) from Tramore (where it still grows) in 1746. Some other records refer to escaped plants of the large cultivated form. In Britain south western, from Dorset to Wales. Rather widely spread along the coasts of Europe, in Russia and the Canaries.

163. Simethis planifolia Gren. and Godr. (S. bicolor Kunth). – One of the most restricted in range of the Hiberno-Mediterranean plants, occupying a single area of ground in S Kerry and another much smaller one in Hampshire. It grew formerly in Dorset also, and has been replanted there. The Irish station consists of some. 10 to 12 sq. miles of wild rocky and furzy heath with a peaty subsoil, extending from Derrynane eastward; it is fairly abundant there (314). First found by Rev. T. O'Mahony (Lond. Journ. Bot., 1848, 571). On the Continent from Normandy to Spain and on to Sardinia, Corsica, and Italy.

164. Allium Babingtonii Borrer. – Along the W and NW coast from Galway Bay to Lough Swilly, favouring the islands – Aran (especially), Inishbofin, and probably the Donegal Arranmore. On the three Aran Islands it looks thoroughly native, in rock-chinks and sandy places. There and elsewhere it is often near houses, but it is no doubt an indigenous plant brought into cultivation (see Journ. Bot., 1934, 74). Elsewhere in Cornwall only.

165. Juncus macer S. F. Gray (J. tennis auct. britt. non Willd.). – This American plant has been under suspicion of introduction into Ireland, since it is undoubtedly alien on the European continent and elsewhere, where it has now spread very widely. In N America its usual habitat is the edges of paths or roads, which tends to easy dispersal by moving traffic. But while in continental Europe its rapid spread is notorious, twenty years' observation by Dr. Scully of the plant in Kerry reveals no such tendency (Fl. Kerry, 292); and as in the case of Sisyrinchium, its habitats lie mostly in wild remote areas, far from all obvious sources of introduction such as ports or railways. Outside of Kerry (where it is locally abundant) and W Cork the plant is in Ireland known from roadsides in Wicklow, salt marshes on Inishmore in Galway Bay, and one suspicious station in Down, now destroyed, in Victoria Park close to the Belfast docks. While it will be difficult to find proof, it seems probable that research will tend to establish the position of this plant as indigenous.

M. L. Fernald, to whom we are indebted for the correction of the name of this plant (Journ. Bot., 1930, 364-7), considers that Juncus macer may be a native of the Scottish mountains (Clova, G. Don, 1795 circa), but a recent introduction in England. Ireland he does not refer to.

The plant has been known as an alien spreading on roadsides in England (since 1883 – see Ridley in Journ. Bot., 1885, 1) and elsewhere.

166. Juncus acutus Linn. – This fine rush occurs along the S and E coasts from Cape Clear to Wicklow town, especially in Wexford. In Britain southern, absent from Scotland. Southern on the Continent, from France eastward. Asia, Canaries, America.

167. Potamogeton perpygmus Hagstr. (P. coloratus X pusillus, P. lanceolatus auct. quoad pl. hibernicam). – There has been much discussion concerning P. lanceolotus. This has centred round the English plant (Cambridgeshire and Wales), which has been variously interpreted as alpinus X pusillus, coloratus X pusillus, and gramineus X pusillus. We are here concerned only with the Irish plant. Examination of this in its original Clare station (Cahir River S of Black Head) will I think confirm the view that it is coloratus X pusillus. The plant grows with both its reputed parents, the only other Pondweed in the stream being P. natans. It has moreover precisely the peculiar red tint of the local P. coloratus. A large form (Irish Nat., 1896, 243) grows in shallow rippling streams at Clonbrock (369) and Barbersfort (368) in NE Galway. The name lanceolatus being applicable to the English plant (which, on the evidence, would appear to be alpinus X pusillus), the Irish hybrid has been named by HagstrOm P. perpygmceus (Bot. Exch. Club Report, 1922, 630). This plant, which appears to be endemic in Ireland, was first found (in the Cahir River) by P. B. O'Kelly (Journ. Bot., 1.891, 344; 1892, 195).

168. P. sparganiifolius Last. (P. Kirkii Syme. P. gramineus X natans). – Long known as growing in the Maam River (394) in W Galway, where it was first found by T. Kirk in 1853 (Babington Manual, ed. 4, 351, 1856). The station is near the bridge at Maam. It has been gathered also in Lough Corrib by M. Norman in 1858 (Bot. Exch. Club Report, 1930, 394), and there is a doubtful record from Lough Neagh (see Irish Nat., 1909, 83-5). England and the Continent, very rare.

169. P. Babingtonii Ar. Benn. (P. longifolius Bab. non Gay. P. lucens X prcelongus). – A single floating stem picked up by J. Ball in Lough Corrib (367) in 1835 is all that is known of this plant, which is figured in Engl. Bot. Suppl., 2847. Its rediscovery is very desirable. See A. Bennett in Journ. Bot., 1894, 204-5.

170. Potamogeton filiformis Nolte. – N half of Ireland, in lakes mostly on the limestone, rare. Scotland and Anglesea, local. Northern in Europe, and spread as far as America and Australia.

171. Ruppia maritima Linn. (R. spiralis Hartm.). – From Kerry up the S and E coasts to Donegal, discontinuous, more frequent in Down than elsewhere. Throughout Britain, but local and rare. World-wide in range.

172. Naias flexilis Rosk. and Schmidt. – This little water-plant, very wide-spread in N America, has in Europe a marked “Atlantic” distribution – Kerry, W Galway, and W Donegal in Ireland, Perth and Skye in Scotland, Esthwaite Water in Lancashire, and a few stations in NW Europe. Being small and inconspicuous in its submerged habitat, it is probably more widespread along the western Irish coast than would appear. First found by Daniel Oliver at Cregduff Lough, Roundstone, in 1850 (Bot. Gazette, 2, 278, 1850).

173. Eriocaulon septangulare With. (plate 12). – The most wide-ranging of the Hiberno-American plants, found from Adrigole in W Cork to the Rosses, N of Dungloe, in W Donegal. Locally abundant in S Kerry, W Galway, W Mayo. Avoids the limestone tracts, the only station being Killower Lough in NE Galway, which is also unusually far inland, 18 miles from the head of Galway Bay. Often very abundant where it occurs, covering the peaty bottom in shallow water. It is extremely buoyant, and in rough weather breaks away from its anchorage, sometimes in large mats, and is often washed up in quantity, when its curious soft white jointed worm-like roots form a conspicuous feature. The flower-stem (July–Sept.) varies in length from a couple of inches, when growing on bare wet ground, to over three ft. when the plant grows in deep water.

Differences in water-level during summer are shown by the flower or fruit heads being submerged, or so much raised above the water that the stems slope: the normal height of the flower above water being 4 inches. In July, the previous year's stems are often still undecayed, lying criss-cross across the green rosettes on the bottom, looking like pale straws.

To 1000 ft. in Cork, but usually lowland. First found by Walter Wade in Connemara in 1801. In Britain confined to the Scottish islands of Skye and Coll. Not on the European continent. In N America has a very wide range.

174. Scirpus nanus Spreng. (S. parvulus Rcem. & Schult.). – Very rare in Ireland, confined to two stations – the tidal portion of the Cashen River in N Kerry (330), where it is abundant for some 3 miles (Scully in Journ. Bot., 1890, 110) and the river-mouth at Arklow (276) in Wicklow (A. G. More in Journ. Bot., 1868, 254 and 321 – 3, tab. 85). In Britain almost equally rare, in Wales and S England. On the Continent rather widely spread; Asia, Africa, America.

175. Scirpus filiformis Savi (S. Savii Seb. and Maur.). – Round almost the whole Irish coast. Rare beyond tidal influence, as in Kerry (850 ft.), Wicklow (700 ft.), E Donegal (300-550 ft.). N to S of Britain, but local. Continental distribution “Mediterranean,” from W France eastward. Has a nearly world-wide range.

176. S. triqueter Linn. (plate 16). – As at present known, confined to the foreshore on both sides of the Shannon, from above Limerick to Tervoe lower light about 5 miles below the city, and sparingly in Cratloe Creek a mile further down on the Clare side (334). In the tidal river below the town it grows in great profusion on the muddy foreshore. Above the town, it occurs sparingly above the “head of the tide” as far as the old canal entrance 1 mile ENE of Limerick, growing small and starved in running fresh water.

In Britain only on the tidal reaches of rivers in S (especially SE) England. On the Continent widespread, both along the coast and by rivers in central Europe. Asia, Africa, America.

177. Rhynchospora fusca Ait. – On peat-bogs, widespread in the W and centre, often very abundant, its area including half of Ireland. Its E boundary runs roughly from W Cork to Westmeath and on to Donegal Bay. First found by J. T. Mackay near Killarney in 1805. In Britain much rarer, from S England to mid Scotland. A plant widespread in Europe.

178. Carex pauciflora Lightf. – Widespread and often abundant over an area of some 10 sq. miles of bog, on the Garron Plateau, at about 1000 ft. elevation from Parkmore station to the Trosks above earnlough in Antrim (468), often accompanied by C. magellanica, also here in its only Irish station (H. W. Lett, Journ. Bot., 1895, 216-7; R. Ll. Praeger, Irish Nat., 1920, 97). Alpine and northern in Britain, and arctic-alpine on the Continent and N America.

179. Carex paradoxa Willd. – Very rare, in S Clare (342) and central Westmeath (487) only. Very rare also in England, though occurring from N to SE. A plant of N Europe and Siberia.

180. Carex fusca All. (C. Buxbaumii Wahl.). – Found by David Moore on Harbour I. in Lough Neagh (464) in 1835 (Companion to Bot. Mag., 1835, 307), and seen there occasionally till 1886; apparently extinct now (see Stewart & Corry Fl. NE Ireland 161, and Irish Nat., 1920, 104). For 60 years this remained the only station in the British Isles, but in 1895 it was found by a loch in Arisaig, West Inverness (A. Bennett in Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist., 1895, 247-9). The plant has a very wide range through Europe, Asia, N and S Africa.

181. Carex aquatilis Wahl. – Rather frequent in Ireland, being native in 13 divisions, mostly in the typical form (var. elatior Bab.), and chiefly towards the N in low stations near the hills, but extends to the extreme south. A recent arrival in Dublin (Irish Nat., 1901, 49). First found by S. A. Stewart at Lough Allen (Journ. Bot., 1885, 49). In Britain northern. Elsewhere in Arctic Europe. See also A. Bennett in Irish Nat., 1892, 48-50.

182. Carex hibernica Ar. Benn. (C. aquatilis X ? Goodenowii. C. aquatilis X Hudsonii? Ar. Bunn.). – This plant has its only known station by the river half a mile above Galway's Bridge on the old Killarney-Kenmare road in S Kerry, where it was found by R. W. Scully in 1889 – see A. Bennett in Journ. Bot., 1897, 250, and Scully Fl. Kerry, 329; also 323. Not known elsewhere. It looks more like a Goodenowii than a Hudsonii cross, and the former species is present, the latter absent.

183. Carex magellanica Lam. (C. irrigua Smith). – Frequent on the high moorland of the Garron Plateau in Antrim (468) at about 1000 ft., with C. wucillora, which also has here its only Irish station. From mid-Scotland to N Wales, rare. A N European plant.

184. Carex punctata Gaud. – Kerry and Cork only, by the sea, from Kerry Head to Ballycottin. SW and W coasts of Britain as far as S Scotland, rare and discontinuous. W Europe (not always maritime), Asia Minor, N Africa.

185. Calamagrostis neglecta P. Beauv. var. Hookeri Syme. – This variety was long known only from Lough Neagh (464), where it was first found by David Moore in 1836, and has since proved to be of frequent occurrence around that lake and the adjoining L. Beg, though now extinct in some' of its former stations. See Fl. NE Ireland and Cyb. Hib. (2), 417. Recently found in a fen at Stow Bedon in Norfolk (A. Bennett in Journ. Bot., 1915, 281, and Irish Nat., 1915, 170), which is its only known station in Britain. The type is absent from Ireland.

186. Sesleria caerulea Arduin. – The most abundant and characteristic grass of the western limestones, occurring wherever bare limestone appears, save in Limerick; it apparently does not cross the Shannon in the S. Confined in Ireland to the district W of the Shannon save where it colonizes the E bank in Tipperary and Westmeath, and the shores of the Shannon lakes. It follows the western limestones to their limit in S Donegal (444). From the limestone rocks it extends to esker-ridges, dry pastures, and sand-dunes; and in SW Connemara (388) to rocky heaths where no trace of limy soil is evident. In Fermanagh, also, it grows on ledges of Yoredale sandstone (438). Occurs abundantly at sea-level, and thence up to 1000 ft. in Clare and 1100 ft. on the Ben Bulben range.

Rarer and much scattered in Britain, chiefly on limestone hills, from N Scotland to N England and Wales. Rather southern on the continent, widespread. Iceland.

187. Poa alpina Linn. – On Brandon (325) in S Kerry, and Ben Bulben and Annacoona in Sligo (423), 1500-3100 ft. In Britain from N Wales to N Scotland, 3000-4000 ft. Of alpine-arctic circumpolar range; Himalayas, N Africa.

188. Glyceria Foucaudii Hackel (G. festumformis auct. britt. non Heynhold, G. maritima var. hibernica Druee) (plate 18). Locally plentiful in the Shannon estuary (331, 342) (River Fergus, also Foyne 3) and in Down (especially Strangford Lough (475), mostly on islets with a gravelly shore underlaid by clay). It forms a fringe at or slightly below highwater mark, and lower down than the plants (Aster Tripolium, Atriplex spp., etc.) which accompany it. It is very distinct when growing, and recognised at a distance by its large, erect tufts, two ft. or more in height. Two plants of different appearance are included in the Shannon records for this species – the one erect, growing on open shores: the other on mud, with prostrate shoots – see the papers quoted in footnotes 52 and 53; further work on these forms is desirable.

In Britain southern, confined to the S English coast. On the Continent a Mediterranean species.

189. Glyceria Borreri Bab. – Dungarvan Harbour (286) in Waterford (Irish Nat. Jl., 1, 96 (1926)), Wexford Harbour (277), and Dublin Bay (236) only, on muddy ground by the sea. Southern in Britain (Bristol Channel to the Wash, with an outlying station in Forfar). Elsewhere by the North Sea in Holland and Germany.

190. Juniperus. – In Ireland both the Junipers are found chiefly along the W coast. J. communis is mainly lowland and calcicole, spread over the low-lying limestones form Killarney to Ballina and on by Sligo and Fermanagh to colonize the metamorphic rocks of Mayo and Donegal. J. sibirica (= raw) on the other hand is spread over the non-calcareous rocks of the W from Kerry to Donegal (on limestone ('1 or peat) in Sligo), and on across the Antrim basalts to the Mourne granites from sea-level (such as sand-dunes in Kerry) to 2000 ft. (in Down), being mostly upland. J. communis is rarer and J. sibirica commoner than in Britain. See Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 58-61 (1934).

191. Taxus baccata Linn. f. fastigiata (Lindl.). – The Irish or Florencecourt Yew, T. fastigiata Lindl., now so common in cultivation, had its origin in two seedlings found wild by Mr. George Willis about 1767 on a limestone rock at Carrick-na-Madadh above Florencecourt (430), Co. Fermanagh; one of the original specimens still grows in Florencecourt demesne. These plants were females, and consequently most of the specimens in cultivation (which have been produced by cuttings) are females also. Recently, however, male plants have been found to be in cultivation in England, and these have been traced to the Barnham Nurseries near Bognor, where they have been grown for at least 45 years. How they originated there is not known. Possibly a seedling of the usual typica X fastigiata cross came true to fastigiata (which has apparently happened once before) and was a male: possibly it was a case of sex reversal in fastigiata, a phenomenon not unknown among other plants.

Fruit is usually borne in abundance by natural crossing with the Common Yew, but almost invariably the seeds reproduce the typical form, not the variety. It would be interesting to learn whether fastigiata 8 crossed with fastigiata 9 produces fastigiata. Dr. Maxwell Masters considered the Floreneecourt Yew to be a juvenile form of the species, in which the characters of the seedling (the radial disposition of the leaves and the upright habit) are preserved throughout the life of the plant.

192. Trichomanes radicans Sw. – A characteristic Irish plant, demonstrating the “Atlantic” conditions which prevail everywhere over the island by its occurrence in N, S. E, and W; but it is much more wide-spread in the S, and now extinct in its most easterly stations (Wicklow), where it was found for the first time in Ireland [at Powerscourt] (268) by 'Whitley Stokes before 1804. The raids of collectors have greatly diminished its quantity everywhere. Occurs from sea-level to 1000 ft. See excellent account by Scully in Fl. Kerry, 359-61.

In Britain extremely rare, in Wales, N England, W Scotland. Elsewhere almost world-wide, warm-temperate or tropical.

193. Adiantum Capillus-veneris Linn. (plate 23). – Along the W coast from Clare to Donegal, but very rare except in the Aran Islands (246) and Burren (252), where it is often abundant in fissures of the limestone, ascending to 800 ft. Some very limited stations are far from the Carboniferous limestone, and have been quoted as examples of the plant's occurrence in lime-free habitats – such as

guum C. & G.). – A remarkable dwarf gregarious form grows on the Great Blasket, Brandon Point, and Three Sisters Head in S Kerry, and Slieve League and Horn Head in W Donegal, in all cases in places of great exposure. It has at different times been referred to 0. lusitanicum of the Channel Islands, or to the var. polyphyllum of Orkney and Scilly, but is not the first and more likely the second. As seen on the Great Blasket, it forms a carpet one inch high, with at least 100 plants to the sq. foot (Irish Nat., 1912, 161).

201. Equisetum litorale. Kiihlew. (E. arvense X iimosum). – Since its discovery in Down (Irish Nat., 1917, 141-7, pl. VI–VII) in 1917, this interesting hybrid has been found in no less than 19 of the 40 county-divisions. Its apparent greater abundance in Ireland than in Britain (where it is recorded from very few stations in England and Scotland) probably signifies want of recognition in Britain rather than actual rarity there. Elsewhere it has been recorded from many places in both Europe and N America. The Irish plant in most cases belongs to the var. elatius Milde.

203. Equisetum Moorei Newman. – This Horsetail has a quite definite range along the E coast from Ardmore Point in Wicklow to Wexford Harbour (272), on sand-dunes and rocky or clayey banks by the sea, in dry or wet ground. Its appearance is that of a slender hyemale, and it has been sometimes assigned varietal rank under that species, sometimes specific rank. One character held to favour the latter view was its alleged deciduous habit, which was later denied. Having collected it in several stations, and grown the plants alongside hyemale from different places, I find the stems to be much less persistent than in the other. In a normal winter all the stems except a few produced in autumn die back to within a short distance of the base, while hyemale usually remains green throughout, losing at most a few of its ultimate joints. No intermediate forms occur in the E. Moorei area, and the plant appears to be strictly maritime, in contrast to hyemale'. I think it deserves specific rank, in the modern use of that term. First found by D. Moore and J. Melville at Rockfield in 1851 (Phytol., 1854, 17-18). Unknown in Britain.

Schaffner, whose full discussion of the plant should be noted (American Fern Journal, 21, 95-98, 1931), from a study of herbarium material, identifies it with E. hyemale var. Schleicheri Milde and E. occidentale Hy. He maintains it as a distinct species.

204. Equisetum trachyodon Braun (E. Mackaii Newman). – The frequency of this northern plant in Ireland is noteworthy, in view of its extreme rarity in Britain (Kincardine only, doubtful). It grows in no less than 15 divisions, from Kerry to Antrim and from Mayo to Dublin, being rather northern and western. First found by F. Whitla in Colin Glen near Belfast before 1830. A rare northern species on the Continent and in America.

205. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. There are several forms of this in Ireland. What ranks as the type (var. majus Syme) is not infrequent, especially along sandy river-banks – a plant of medium size, with spreading or suberect stems of a lightish green colour. Var. arenarium, a smaller (often minute) prostrate very slender form growing in damp places in sand-dunes, looks very distinct from the last, but when grown side by side it becomes only slightly smaller and more prostrate, and has just the same colour. More distinct is a form characteristic of canal banks in the Central Plain, but found in other places also – strong, with very erect very numerous stems 2 to 3 feet high, of a, very dark green colour. This plant, as seen in Glen Cahir, Clare, was noted by G. C. Druce as intermediate between variegatum and trachyodon, but the sheath characters are all those of variegatum. Lastly there is E. Wilsoni of Newman, as tall as the last, but much stouter and of a lighter green, known only from Kerry – the Lower Lake of Killarney (Muckross Bay and Ross Bay) and Caragh Lake. Although I have searched for this plant, I know it only from dried specimens, and cannot express an opinion as to its distinctness: but it does not seem sufficiently removed from variegatum to rank as a species.

206. Isoetes lacustris Linn. f. maxima Blytt (var. Morei Syme., I. Morei Moore). – A remarkable long-leaved form of I. lacustris known from Upper Lough Bray in Wicklow (268), where it was first found by A. G. More (see D. MOORE: “On a new species of Isoetes from Ireland.” Journ. Bot., 1878, 353-5, tab. 199). The leaves may attain a length of over 2 ft. A form approaching this has been found by E. S. Marshall in Lough Camelaun in the Dingle Peninsula, S Kerry; and leaves 18-20 inches were collected by Scully at Lough Slat in the same neighbourhood (Fl. Kerry, 383).

207. Charophyta. – The general range of the Charophyta is often extraordinarily wide, resembling that of many of the minute-spored terrestrial cryptogams rather than the comparatively heavy-seeded phanerogams. The Irish Charophyte flora is fully dealt with in the recent monograph by GROVES and BULLOCK-WEBSTER (Ray Society, 1917, 1924). The following, so far as at present known, appear to be the Irish species which are rarest in Ireland and Britain :–

Tolypella nidifica Leonh. – Wexford Harbour; two Scottish stations; N and W Europe; Kerguelen.
Nitella batrachosperma Braun (N. Nordstedtiana H. and J. Groves. N. confervacea Braun). – Killarney and Caragh L., Achill Island, Kindrum in W Donegal. In Britain in the Outer Hebrides only. Wide-spread over the world.
Nitella tennissima Kuetz. – Ballindooly in NE Galway, Scraw Bog and L. Owel in Westmeath. Britain – Norfolk, Cambridge, Anglesea. World-wide.
Nitella spanioclema Groves and Bullock-Webster. – Described from L. Shannagh and L. Kindrum in W Donegal; also in Perth.
Chara muscosa Groves and Bullock-Webster. – Described from L. Mullaghderg in W Donegal; also in Orkney.
Chara denudata Braun. – Brittas L. in Westmeath. Unknown in Britain. Switzerland, Italy, Cape Colony.
Chara tomentosa Linn. – Abundant in the Shannon lakes of Ree and Derg, and in the Westmeath lakes. Unknown in Britain. Widespread in Europe; also known front Asia and N. Africa.

208. As in most countries, the list of species recorded on mistaken determination or careless localization is in Ireland a long one (see Cyb. Hib. (2) 471-520). But there are some interesting records which may still prove to be correct, as has been the case with Limosella, recorded from Connemara in 1804, set down as 'not' Irish by subsequent botanists, and refound in Clare in 1893; Helianthemum chamaecistus, reported from S Donegal. in 1893, set down subsequently as planted or escaped, and refound undoubtedly native in the same locality in 1933; and Lathyrus maritimus, known in Kerry from 1756 to 1845, given up as extinct, and refound in its old station in 1918. A few of the more interesting of these are mentioned in order to draw to them the attention of visiting botanists.

209. Thalictrum alpinum Linn. – At about 2000 ft. on Brandon, S Kerry – A. Ley in Journ. Bot. 1887, 374. Never refound on this well-worked mountain, but a mistake seems unlikely. Unknown elsewhere in the S half of Ireland.

Matthiola sinuata R.Br. – Old records from Beal Castle, 1756, and Banna, 1878 (both in N Kerry, 330), and Straw Island on Aran, 1835 (352). Some of the strand plants are notoriously irregular in their appearance, and Matthiola may still re-appear.

210. Saxifraga Geum Linn. – Reported from Clifden in Connemara; – see 390.

spathularis Brot. (umbrosa auct.). – Reported from Malin Head in Donegal – see 452.

Erica ciliaris Linn. – Stated by Mackay (Nat. Hist. Rev. 1859, 537) to have been found by Bergin at Craiggamore (389), W Galway (the station for E. Mackaii), in 1846; and recorded by J. B. Balfour (Phytol. 1853, 1007) as found in the same place in 1852. The Bergin record is backed by a specimen (E. ciliaris!) in Herb. Trin. Coll. Dublin, certified by Bergin as portion of the original finding (see Cyb. Hib. (1) 183 and (2) 498). Searched for by many botanists since without success. Quite likely to occur, as this Pyrenean heath extends as far north as SW England (35), and others of the same geographical group grow at Craigga-more.

211. Erica vagans Linn. – Cliffs in Islandieane town-land, W of Tramore, Waterford (383); found by Dr. Burkitt (before 1866) and named by Dr. Robert Ball (Cyb. Hib. ed. I, 184). Searched for. in .vain since. General range similar to the last, so its occurrence in Ireland is quite possible, but it is certainly not now in the station named. See Proc. R.I.A., 42, B, 72.

212. Erica stricta Donn. North of Ireland, 1834 (Dr. Lloyd), spec. in Herb. Hooker (see Cyb. Hib. (2) 499, and Journ. Bot. 1872, 25). Reported from Sallagh Braes, Co. Antrim, and Downhill (or rather Magilligan 456), Co. Derry (Irish Nat. 1923, 32). The Magilligan plant has been refound, and was an escape (see Proc. R. Irish Acad. 41 B 114-5, 1932). The other two records are not definitely localized, and are unsatisfactory. A S European plant, to be expected (if anywhere in Ireland) in the SW rather than in the NE. But the Mediterranean Glyceria Faucaudii is abundant on Strangford Lough close by.

213. Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. – Included without comment in the Irish flora by Druce (Com. Fl. Brit. I) on the strength of a specimen in his herbarium labelled as collected by Bishop Mitchison near Kilmacrenan, W Donegal, in 1865. The area has been searched by Druce and by myself. The station is quite unsuitable, and no alpine plant is found in the vicinity (see Proc. R. Irish Acad. 41 B 113-4, 1932). I have no doubt that a mistake in labelling occurred.

Scrophularia, alata Gilib. – Near Limerick, 1846 (Isaac Carroll); spec. in Herb. Brit. Mus.! Known to grow by the Liffey (236), where it is abundant, and also sparingly by the Bann in Londonderry (362), so quite likely to occur also by the Shannon, but cannot be found. See Britten, also Praeger, in Irish Nat. 1909, 222.

214. Limosella aquatica Linn. – “Frequently occurring where the water has stood during the winter, county Galway, near Ballynahinch, Connemara” Wade Plantae Rariores, 1804. Now known to occur locally in the adjoining county of Clare, to which as at present known it is confined. With a wide range in Britain, it is very possibly not so restricted in Ireland as would appear. The habitat of the species is quite correctly described by Wade.

Euphrasia salisburgensis Funk. – Reported from Lough Neagh – see 466. Also from a rock-ledge at 1100 ft. on Benevenagh, Co. Derry – B.E.C. Report, 1924, 588. Doubtful.

215. Euphorbia Peplis Linn. (151). – Once found in Ireland – at Garraris Cove near Tramore (283), Waterford, 1839 (see Cyb. Hib. (1), 258). In Britain a rare and decreasing species of S England and Wales. Probably extinct, but should be watched for along the Irish E and S coasts.

216. Elisma natans Buchenau. – Druce recorded this as Irish (from Killarney and Clare) in Irish Nat. 1910, 237, on the authority of”Gluck. But Gluck informed me subsequently (see Irish Nat. 1913, 105) that he considered the evidence for the inclusion of this plant in the Irish flora was insufficient. In the “Comital Flora of the British Isles” Druce sets it down without comment as an Irish plant.

217. Potamogeton Babingtonii Ar. Benn. (lucens X pralongus). – One fragment found by J. Ball in 1835 floating in Lough Corrib; see Cyb. Hib. (2), 378. An extremely rare hybrid, the refinding of which would be desirable.

P. sparganiifolius Last. – Reported from Lough. Neagh – see 466.

218. Carex fusca All. (C. Buxbaumii). – Known from 1835, when it was found by D. Moore (Companion to Bot. Mag. 1835, 307), till 1886 (S. A. Stewart) on Harbour Island, in Lough Neagh, 3 miles S by E of Toome: apparently now extinct through grazing. This is the only Irish station, and it is equally rare in Britain, having a single station in Scotland – by a small loch in Arisaig, W Inverness (A. Bennett in Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1895, 247-9). Still quite likely to occur at other places on the extensive and incompletely worked shores of L. Neagh. The original station, which had been reduced to a bare pasturage (Fl. NE.I. 161), is now again covered with scrub (Irish Nat. 1920, 103). The L. Neagh flora suffered from the lowering of the level of the lake in 1855, and since that date a number of plants very rare in the north have not been seen there – see 465. The plant has a very wide range through Europe, Asia, N. and S. Africa.

Carex elongata Linn. – Also not seen on L. Neagh since Dr. Moore's time, is a case similar to that of C. fusca; but it has a second Irish station on L. Erne.

219. Phegopteris Dryopteris Fee. – This fern is remarkably rare in Ireland, most of the records are old, and the refinding of it in its recorded stations is very desirable. These lie in Clare (“roadside between Broadford village and the Cliffs of Moher,” T. H. Wright – Cyb. Hib. 2); Wicklow (“at Sheenabeg near Aughrim, very sparingly, 1879,” G. H. Kinahan, ibid., and “in good quantity on a hillside overlooking Glendalough,” 1879 [but reported from memory after twenty years], E. S. Marshall in Journ. Bot. 1899, 269); Leitrim (Benbo Mountain, 800 ft., J. Wynne – Cyb. Hib. (1) 368); Sligo (Lough Talt, Ox Mountains, R. Warren – see Irish Nat. 1897, 27); and Antrim (north side of Knocklayd, sparingly, D. Moore, Cyb. Hib. (1) 368 – see Irish Nat. Journ., 5, 36, 1934).

Athyrium alpestre Milde. – Glenveigh, W Donegal – F. R. Browning in B.E.C. Report 1927, 426. Not reported from Ireland before or since, and the record needs confirmation.

Tolypella prolifera Leonh. – Not refound at Glasnevin – see 236.

Introduction and Preface; 1-26: Geography, Topology, Climate ; 27-47: General history of the flora;
48-69: Vegetational sub-divisions; 70-78: Human Influence and Botanical workers;
79-219: Some Interesting Plants;