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THE BOTANIST IN IRELAND (4)

by Robert Lloyd Praeger D.Sc.


Introduction and Preface; 1-26: Geography, Topology, Climate; 27-47: General history of the flora ;
48-69: Vegetational sub-divisions; 70-78: Human Influence and Botanical workers;
79-219: Some Interesting Plants;

HUMAN INFLUENCE ON THE FLORA.

70. The natural climax vegetation of Ireland – forest, now chiefly of Quercus and Betula – has long since passed away save in places unsuitable for grazing, and has been replaced by grassland, its boundaries further extended by drainage and the removal of peat-bog. Tillage furnishes a further step in the destruction of the native flora, but, fortunately for the botanist, Ireland is not essentially a tillage country. Potatoes, oats, turnips furnish the principal crops: all crops put together do not occupy half the area which is covered by grass (see 76). The amount of tillage increases from west to east, and reaches a maximum in certain NE counties, mostly in the Silurian area (fig. 10). Tillage has brought with it the introduction of a great number of extraneous species, largely annual plants of Central European and Mediterranean origin. These reach their maximum around Dublin and in the SE, which is the region of maximum summer temperature. The indigenous vegetation of the lowland rich soils has been almost obliterated; the flora becomes more and more aboriginal as the soil becomes unsuitable for agricultural operations, as on bogs, marshes, and mountains. The native plants are in general very persistent, clinging to any remnant of primitive ground, whence, if allowed, they tend to spread back into their old territory. But many others, more sensitive, have shrunk back or disappeared before the changes induced by man. Thus, for instance, the poverty of the woodland flora of Ireland is conspicuous as compared with England or Scotland – no Helleborus, Linnaea, Trientalis, Daphne, Corallorhiza, Goodyera, Cephalanthera grandiflora, Maianthemum, Ruscus, Convallaria, Paris. This is one of the prices Ireland has paid for being a cattle country, for probably at least a few of these were here formerly.

The plants of the seashore seem especially sensitive. Euphorbia Peplis is gone, and Crambe, Matthiola, Diotis, Asparagus, Mertensia and others are decreasing.



FIG. 10. – TILLAGE IN IRELAND.
White = under 25 per cent.
Black = over 35 per cent.

71. The medley of introduced plants includes some vigorous species which spread and colonize; many of these are mentioned in the succeediug paragraphs. One of the most difficult tasks, therefore, of the botanical geographer, endeavouring to trace the routes and dates of the immigrations of the flora, and its reactions to soil, climate, and so on, is set by this destruction of the broad features of especially the lowland vegetation, and the intricate mixture of native and introduced plants which now prevails. Various definitions of a NATIVE PLANT have been proposed: I use that employed by Dunn*:– A species is only held to be native in a natural locality to which it has spread by natural means. This excludes all interference by man, direct or indirect, as regards either the origin of the seed or plant, its transport, or its subsequent development. But these tests are not easy to apply, and cannot mostly be applied directly. We have to rely rather on the absence of any evidence of introduction, making “native,” in its application, a purely negative term, as H. C. Watson has pointed out. By most botanists, “native” is not used in so strict a sense as that quoted above, and generally includes individuals of species truly native in the district or country, which are growing by natural spreading either in natural or in artificial habitats; and in view of the fact that these two categories comprise the limits which the native plants have achieved by natural dissemination, there is a good deal to be said for the practice, which is adopted in the pages which follow.

* S. T. DUNN: “Alien Flora of Britain,” p. x. 1905.
Dunn's definition involves three points: (1) the origin of the plant; (2) the means by which it reached its present habitat; (3) the nature of the habitat. I have elsewhere27 proposed a formula for indicating the standing of plants according to these tests. If we use N as meaning uncontaminated conditions, whether of source, dispersal, or habitat, and * for contaminated conditions, then NNN, and only that combination, fulfils Dunn's formula for a fully native plant. To this one adds NN* – native plants which have spread by natural means to a non-natural habitat, like Lonicera in a roadside hedge, Ceterach on a wall, or the many native plants in drained land or planted woods. All other combinations involve either a contaminated source or artificial introduction, and while plants thus defined may be fully naturalized, they cannot be reckoned as native. Thus, the American garden Mimulus by a mountain stream is *NN, having spread by natural means to a natural habitat, and Pinguicula grandifiora brought from Kerry into wild ground in Wexford is N*N. The plants of our gardens are mostly ***. This matter will be found more fully discussed in the place indicated*.

* R. LL. PRAEGER: “Phanerogamia.” (Clare Island Survey) Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 31, part 10. 1911.
There has been much loose thinking and loose practice as regards this admittedly difficult matter, and I think it will be found that appeal to this formula tends to clarify one's ideas.

72. The most obviously introduced plants in our flora (excluding exotic species deliberately planted) are the many casuals which occur especially about centres of industry – docks, railway yards, factories, etc. While the majority of these are mere fleeting waifs, a few of them establish themselves, and have become permanent members of our flora. Examples of such in Ireland are :–

Diplotaxis muralis Valerianella carinata
Coronopus didymus Matricaria suaveolens
Lepidium latifolium Senecio squalidus
Arenaria tenuifolia Linaria minor
Malva rotundifolia Poa compressa
But though these may spread widely, only seldom do they succeed in penetrating into the native vegetation on wild ground. Most of them continue to be denizens of waysides, railways, tilled land, walls, and other artificial habitats, and remain *N*. Their tenure is dependent on the continuance of the artificial conditions under which they live, which tend to restrain the native vegetation from ousting them. Along with the crops of the farmland and the flowers of our gardens, they are quite alien to the native flora; but being often unfamiliar, and offering interesting problems regarding their mode of introduction and possible acclimatization, they are well worthy of attention. As an example of the number of plants which are unsuccessfully introduced in this way into our country, see KNOWLES in Irish Nat. 1906, 143-150.

A large section of the introduced flora, in Ireland as elsewhere, owes its presence to agricultural and garden seed, and to arrival in soil on the roots of planted shrubs and herbs. To this category belong all or most of the species of Papaver, Fumaria, Brassica, Valerianella, Lamium, Galeopsis, some species of Veronica and Euphorbia, and so on – at least 60 or 70 in all. Some o f these are at present spreading rapidly, like Draba muralis, Crepis biennis, Orobanche minor; but like the last group they usually do not mix with the undisturbed native flora, and a large number are dependent for their continuance on the annual turning over of the soil, an operation which holds the indigenous flora in check. Almost without exception they remain *N*.

73. Another group consists of ornamental plants, or species formerly used as pot-herbs or for medicinal purposes. Many of these are aggressive or at least persistent perennials, with great staying qualities, but again with little power of competing on equal terms with the native flora; as a consequence, they are still mainly found about houses and villages, on old walls, or on disturbed ground. Examples of successful colonizers among the kitchen-garden plants are :–

Chelidonium majus Tanacetum vulgare
Cochlearia Armoracia Inactuca muralis
Saponaria officinalis Verbena officinalis
Smyrnium Olusatrum Lycium chinense
Aegopodium Podagraria Mentha spp.
Myrrhis odorata Ballota nigra
Foeniculum vulgare Chenopodium Bonus-henricus
Sambucus Ebulus Allium spp.
Inula Helenium
and 20 or more others. The garden plants in this category include:–
Clematis Vitalba Petasites fragrans
Corydalis lutea Campanula rapunculoides
Cheiranthus Cheiri Mimulus Langsdorffii
Hypericum hircinum Elodea canadensis
Sedum spp. Stratiotes Aloides
Centranthus ruber Narcissus biflorus
Aster spp.
and a number of others. One or two of them – Centranthus, Aster, Mimulus, and Elodea, for example – have spread into quite wild ground, and, mixing on equal terms with the native flora, merit *NN. But most remain *** or *N*. The naturalization of alien plants goes on slowly but steadily. Among those which appear to be at present establishing themselves as members of the permanent flora of wild ground are. the Himalayan Impatiens glandulifera (river-sides in Dublin, Sligo, etc.), the Himalayan Cotoneater microphyllus (mountain rocks in Mayo, river gravels in Dublin, railway banks W of Athenry, etc.), the New Zealand Epilobium nummularifolium (Blackstairs at 1200 ft., bank by the sea S of Killybegs, railway ballast for ½ mile at Helen's Bay (Down), roadside at Loughaveema and Ramore Head, (Antrim), Portsalon (Donegal), etc.), the Australian Aceena Sanguisorbce (woods in Cork, Dublin, Down), the S. American Fuchsia gracilis (Berehaven district, Co. Cork), the West Asiatic Lactuca tatarica (shore near Galway), the South European Calystegia sylvestris (L. Gill), the. N. American Mimulus moschatus (wet ground in Wicklow, Armagh, Down, Antrim), and the S. African Montbretia Pottsii (rocky shores of L. Gill in Sligo and many other places).

74. As to many other aliens, the means by which they reached their present stations is not clear, and they can only be classed as “followers of man.” For instance:–

Sisymbrum Irio Rumex pulcher
Reseda lutea Mercurialis annua
Galium Cruciata Urtica urens
Picris hieracioides Urtica dioica
Hieracium, several spp. Hordeum murinum
and 20 or 30 others. They mostly remain as dependents on human activities, but some of them spread into the native flora.

75. Another aspect of the question of human influence is the obvious fact that man's operations have often encouraged a material extension of the range of native plants. Mortar-built walls, for instance, arising during the last thousand years all over the country, have allowed lime-loving species to extend far beyond their natural boundaries. There seems little doubt, for instance, that Ceterach was formerly confined to Clare and the adjoining limestone tracts; now it is found, frequently in abundance, in all the 40 Irish vice-counties, and often in every part of them. Asplenium Ruta-muraria, with an original range not so restricted (it occurs, for instance, on basalt in Antrim, and on metamorphic and slate rocks (on lake-shores) in Mayo) is now much more universally distributed even than Ceterach. The ferns, indeed, on account of the abundance and lightness of their spores, are especially enterprising colonists. Many of the extreme outposts of Ireland – Inishbofin, Inishturk, the W end of Achill – now support one or both of those just mentioned. At least six species have penetrated to the centre of Dublin City (see Irish Nat. 1920, 108).

Spores, possibly from a local garden, possibly native and from a long distance, are responsible for the fleeting appearance of Asplenium septentrionale in Down (Irish Nat. 1912, 154) and Lastrea rigida near Drogheda (Cyb. Hib. ed. I, 371). Similar cases are Asplenium viride on old walls at Convoy (about 200 ft. elevation), and Polystichum Lonchitis close to sea-level at Killybegs, both in Donegal (Hart Fl. Don. 286, 288), and (if the records may be trusted) the same fern at Edgeworthstown and Dungannon (Cyb. Hib. ed. I, 372). Cry ptogramme has in Down been twice found at quite low elevations on walls or stone-heaps (Irish Nat. 1903, 36, and Irish Nat. Journ. 1, 242).

Roads and road traffic have spread native plants such as Juncus macer. Canals have extended widely the range in the Central Plain of plants like Butomus and Sagittaria, as also of Patamogeton spp., Charophyta, etc. They have brought Apium Moorei and Potamogeton coloratus, otherwise unknown in the county, inside the Dublin boundary, and Lycopus, Potamogeton densus, Glyceria aquatica, etc., almost into the heart of the city.

Railways in Ireland furnish a classic example of their power of promoting dispersal, by the rapidity with which in recent years Diplotaxis muralis, Arenaria tenuifolia, and Lunaria minor – none of them native – have extended their range through the country. Senecio squalid – us has travelled by rail from Cork to Dublin, and Tragopogon pratense from Leinster (presumably) to Belfast.

76. The maximum change of vegetation due to human operations is found in cities, in well-tilled land, and in gardens, where the change amounts to a full 100 per cent. as regards NNN plants, and may be nearly equally high for NN*. Even leaving out of account the fact that much of the present grassland was originally wood, the influence of grazing animals is still profound in the richer soils, tending to produce a uniform and limited flora, of little interest to the botanist. On poorer soils, especially on limestone, the change is less; it is less still on the mountains, and there affects the relative abundance of the constituent plants rather than the question of their presence or absence. The surface of Ireland has about one-fifth under crops and a little over one-half in grass, with about 11 per cent. mountain land and 8 per cent. peat bog and marsh, and 4 per cent. water; so that over at least three-quarters of the surface the indigenous vegetation has been destroyed or greatly altered. The farmland runs up the hills (mostly following the drift deposits) to heights which vary from 200 ft. in the exposed areas of the west to about 1200 ft. in sheltered spots in the east. From these figures, the very small amount of ground which remains in anything like its pristine condition may be judged.

The net result of human operations comprises two categories – (1) extermination or reduction or redistribution of the native plants, and (2) introduction of alien plants.

These changes are difficult to estimate, since they involve comparison with the past, which can only vaguely be reconstructed. They are greatest in those parts of the country which are richest, were earliest settled, and support the largest human population. In the County of Dublin, which comes foremost in these respects, the alien flora is estimated (qualitatively) at 22 per cent. of the total*. In Kerry it is estimated at 14 per cent*. Quantitatively the difference is much greater: in Kerry, with its large areas of almost undisturbed mountain land, there is, relatively to area, probably not one-tenth the amount of introduced plants which exists in the small County of Dublin.

In the light of evidence now available, there can be little doubt that certain plants, set down in former works such as “Cybele Hibernica” as introduced or probably introduced, are indigenous in Ireland in at least some of their stations. Such are Viola odorata, Trifolium glomeratum, T. subterraneum, Prunus Avium, Rosa stylosa, R. rubiginosa, R. micrantha, Pyrus Malus (acerba), Lysimachia Nummularia, Cuscuta Epithymum, C. Trifolii, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Leucojum cestivum, Allium Babingtonii, Juncus mater, Brachypodium primatum – see Journ. Bot., 1934, 68-75.

* COLGAN: Fl. Dublin, xxxvi.
* SCULLY: Fl. Kerry, xxxiii.
THE BOTANICAL SUBDIVISION OF IRELAND.

77. Several plans have been put forward, at different times, to allow the distribution of plants within the country to be shown by numbers or symbols representing subdivisions, large or small, of the whole area – as Watson did for Britain in his “Topographical Botany,” and as indeed it is necessary to do if one attempts to express in detail the range of plants within any but a small area. No such scheme is required or used in the following pages, save in the “Census List of the Irish Flora” at end, on account of the geographical arrangement of the subject-matter; but it may be well to indicate the plans which have been proposed or used.

  1. Division of Ireland into 12 DISTRICTS (based mostly on county boundaries) and numbered XIX to XXX from S to N, corresponding to and continuing the 18 PROVINCES used by H. C. Watson in his “Cybele Britannica” (3, 1852). Proposed by Prof. C. C. Babington* in 1859 (and used, re-numbered 1-12, by Moore and More in “Cybele Hibernica,” 1866, and by Colgan and Scully (who preferred Roman numerals) in the second edition of the same work (1898)); also division into 37 subordinate VICE-COUNTIES (a few of the larger of the 32 counties being bisected), corresponding to the 112 VICE-COUNTIES used by Watson in his “Topographical Botany” (1873-4).
    * BABINGTON (C. C.): ''Hints towards a Cybele Hibernioa.” Proc. Dublin University Zool. and Bot. Assoc. 1 246-250, 1859, and Nat. Hist. Review 6 (Proc.) 633-637, 1859.
  2. Partition into 40 DIVISIONS, numbered 1-40 from S to N (derived from the 32 counties of Ireland by partition of the larger ones), corresponding to the 112 VICE-COUNTIES used by H. C. Watson in his “Topographical Botany” (1873-4). Proposed by R. Ll. Praeger in 1896*, and used in “Irish Topographical Botany” (1901) and in a number of subsequent papers by various authors dealing with other groups of the flora and fauna. See fig. 29.
    * R. LL. PRAEGER: “On the Botanical Subdivision of Ireland.” Journ. Bot. 1896, 57-66, and Irish Nat. 1896, 28-38, map.
  3. Partition of Ireland into 12 SUB-PROVINCES, derived by dividing each of the four Provinces of Ireland into three (and designating them U1, U2, U3, etc., U = Ulster); each of these contains two to five of Praeger's VICE-COUNTIES. Proposed by J. Adams in 1908*. This suggestion has distinct advantages over the corresponding scheme of. Babington, inasmuch as the coast-line and the mountain areas are somewhat evenly distributed among the 12 areas, which tends to emphasize differences of biological distribution not dependent on habitat only.
    * J. ADAMS: “On the Division of Ireland into Biological Sub-Provinces.” Irish Nat. 1908, 145-151, map.
  4. Proposal by R. Ll. Praeger* to employ his subdivision or that of Babington graphically, when desired, by printing, in two kinds of type (representing presence or absence) the Division-numbers in positions approximating to those which the Divisions occupy on a map.
    * R. LL. PRAEGER: “A Simple Method of representing Geographical. Distribution.” Irish Nat. 1906, 88-94, and Journ. Bot. 1906, 128130.
    Amended by A. W. Stelfox*, to allow the use, instead of numbers, of two-letter symbols to represent the DIVISIONS, these symbols being obtained by contracting the names of the Divisions. Used in several subsequent botanical and zoological papers.
    The forty divisions into which Ireland is partitioned in “Irish Topographical Botany” (fig. 29) have an average area of 813 square miles (maximum 1336 (W Mayo), minimum 316 (Louth) ) – which approximates closely to the average of Watson's 112 vice-counties, which is 804 sq. miles. This allows comparisons to be instituted between the two, which show clearly the reduction in the flora on the western side of the Irish Sea. The actual figures vary according to the standard adopted for that flexible term species. If we use it in a conservative sense (e.g.. that adopted in “Irish Topographical Botany,” and shown there by heavy type), a standard which approximates to that of Babington's “Manual” (excluding suppl. 2 of the 10th edition), the maximum for any Irish division stands at present at 800 (Antrim), the minimum at 520 (Monagh'an), the average at 640. If we include the plants treated as sub-species in “Irish Topographical Botany” (still a conservative estimate), the maximum for any Irish division is 942 (Down) and the minimum 554 (Longford). (The increase in the difference between the extremes is largely due to the unequal working out of segregates: for instance, only one fruticose Rubus is on record from Longford.) If estimated on the standard of the “London Catalogue,” the numbers would be larger. These figures may be compared with such English county totals as have been published. The latter are greater by some 50 per cent.
    * A. W. STELFOX: “A List of the Land and Freshwater Mollusks of Ireland.” Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 29 B 65-164, P1. VII. 1911.
WORKERS AT THE IRISH FLORA.

78. In this book it is not possible in most cases to give the names of the finders of the rarer plants; and all that can be attempted in the present section is to indicate briefly the principal workers whose investigations have made possible a compilation such as this, and to mention in a few words the scope of their researches. For convenience of reference the names are arranged alphabetically, though a chronological arrangement would be more appropriate. Details of their published communications, often merely indicated below, up to 1900, will be found in the Bibliography of “Irish Topographical Botany.” The more important subsequent papers or notes are indicated, like the earlier ones, in the latter portion of this book, where the plant or area dealt with is mentioned. In the following notes “first finder” means of course first finder of the plant in Ireland. Only those writings are referred to which deal especially with the Irish flora, and only the rarer plants which were found are mentioned.

Apart from the books noticed, the bulk of material relating to Irish plants has appeared in journals as follows :–

For the earlier period, say 1830-50 – “Magazine of Natural History” and its successor the well-known “Annals and Mag.”
1841 – 1863 “The Phytologist.”
1863 to date “Journal of Botany.”
1892 – 1924 “Irish Naturalist.”
1926 to date “Irish Naturalists' Journal.”
Also Proceedings of the Dublin Natural History Society, 1849-71, and of other Irish societies.

A few contractions are used below:– B. & B. signifies Britten and Boulger's “Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists,” 2nd ed. by A. B. Rendle, 1931; D.N.B., the “Dictionary of National Biography “; Fl. Dublin, Colgan's well-known Flora, 1904; Fl. NE.I., Stewart and Corry's similar work for Down, Antrim, and Derry; Lett, H. W. Lett's “Botanists of the North of Ireland,” in Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1912-3, 615-628 (reprinted in Irish Nat. 1913, 21-33; the page – references below are to the original paper).

ADAMS (John): “A Student's Illustrated Irish Flora,” 8vo, London, 1931. Proposed a useful scheme for the botanical subdivision of Ireland (77). Papers and notes in Irish Naturalist.
ALLIN (Rev. Thomas): “The Flowering Plants and Ferns of the County Cork,” 8vo, Weston-super-Mare, 1883. And many notes on Cork plants in Journ. Bot. 1871-4.
ALLMAN (Prof. George James): First finder of Diotis maritime (1845). Biography – D.N.B. 1 335; B. & B. 5.
ANDREWS (William): Notes and papers especially on ferns, mostly in Proc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1841 – 71. Found Cerastium arvense var. Andrewsii, Trichomanes radicans var. Andrewsii. Claimed to have found Saxifraga Andrewsii (S. ? Aizoan X spathularis). BiographyD.N.B. 1 4C9; B. & B. 8.
BABINGTON (Prof. Charles Cardale): Many notes and papers, mostly in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1836 – 72. First proposer of a scheme for the botanical subdivision of Ireland (77). Biography – “Memorials of Charles Cardale Babington,” 1897 (portrait); Journ. Bot. 1895, 257 – 266 (portrait); etc.
BAILY (Katherine Sophia, afterwards Lady Kane): “The Irish Flora,” 8vo, Dublin, 1833. Biography – Lett 623.
BALFOUR (Prof. John Hutton): Papers (mostly Connemara) in Phytologist and Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., 1853 – 76. Biography – D.N.B. 2 56; B. & B. 17.
BALL (John): Finder of Potamogeton Babingtonii (1835). Biography – Journ. Bot. 1889, 365 – 370; D.N.B. Suppl. 1, 115 – 8.
BALL (Robert): First finder (with William THOMPSON) of Astragalus danicus (1834), and Allium Ba.bingtonii (1834). Biography – Nat. Hist. Review 1858, 134; D.N.B. 2 77 – 8.
BARRETT – HAMILTON (Gerald E. H.): Papers (some with Miss L. S. GLASCOTT, or with C. B. MOFFAT) on Wexford plants, in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1887 – 4908. Biography – Irish Nat. 1914, 83 – 93 (portrait, list of papers).
BARRINGTON (Richard Manliffe): Reports on Tory I., the Blaskets, L. Erne, and (with R. P. Vowm.r) Ben Bulben and L. Ree, and other papers, mostly in Journ. Bot. and Proc. Roy. Ir. Acad., 1872 – 1915. First finder of Caltha radicans and (with R. P. VOWELL) of Epilobium alsinefolium (1884), and (with H. and J. GROVES) of Nitella gracilis (1892). Biography (with portrait and list of papers) Irish Nat. 1915, 193 – 206; Journ. Bot. 1915, 364 – 7 (portrait); B. & B. 22.
BENNETT (Arthur): Papers and notes, in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1881 – 1919. Biography – Journ. Bot. 1929, 217 – 221 (portrait).
BLASHFORD (J.): First finder of Microcala filiformis (before 1804), and Colchicum autumnale (1799).
BRENAN (Rev. Samuel Arthur): Ulster notes, in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1884 – 1901. Biography – Irish Nat. 1908, 43; Lett 625.
BRITTEN (James): Papers and notes in Journ. Bot., 18721919. Portrait – Journ. Bot. 1912, frontispiece. Biography (with portrait) – Journ. Bot. 1924, 327 – 343.
BRUNKER (James Ponsonby): Papers and notes on the Wicklow flora, 1918 .
BULLOCK – WEBSTER (Rev. George Russell); Papers (some with J. GROVES) on Charophyta, in Irish Nat. and Journ. Bot., 1917 – 20. First finder of Nitella mucronata (1901), N. spanioctema n.sp. (1916), C. muscosa n.sp. (1917).
CARROLL (Isaac): A few short papers in Phytol., Journ. Bot., etc., 1854 – 75. Biography – – Journ. Bot. 1881, 128.
COLGAN (Nathaniel): “Flora of the County Dublin,” 8vo, Dublin, 1904. Editor (with R. W. SCULLY) of “Contributions towards a Cybele Hibernica,” ed. 2, 1898. Many papers and notes in Irish Nat. .(mainly) and Journ. Bot., 1885 – 1918. First finder of Scrophularia alata (1894),35 and (with F. W. BURBIDGE) of Senecio X albescens (1902). Biography (with portrait and list of papers) – Irish Nat. 1919, 121 – 6; B. &. B. 69.
CORRY (Thomas Hughes): Joint author with S. A. STEWART of “Flora of the North – east of Ireland,” 8vo, Belfast, 1888. Papers and notes, mainly in Journ. Bet., 188084. First finder of Hieracium hypocharoides (1879). Biography – Fl. NE.I. v–vi; Journ. Bot. 1883, 313 – 4. Isaac Carroll collected it at an earlier date, but did not recognise it. See 334.
D'ARCY (Elinor): First finder of Carex magetlanica (1901).
DAVIES (John Henry): Many papers and notes (Antrim and Down) in Irish Nat., 1892 – 1907. Biography – Irish Nat. 1909, 235 – 6; Lett 625 – 6; B. & B. 86.
DICKIE (Prof. George): “A Flora of Ulster and Botanist's Guide to the North of Ireland,” 8vo, Belfast, 1864. A few other contributions. Biography – Fl. NE.I., xx–xxi; D.N.B. 15 32; B. & B. 90.
DEUCE (George Claridge): Papers and notes, mostly in Journ. Bot., Bot. Exchange Club Reports, and Irish Nat., 1890 – 1929. First finder of Utricularia ochroleuca (1875), U. Bremii (1875), and many critical plants. Biography – Journ. Bot. 1932, 141 – 4.
DRUMMOND (James): First finder of Pinguicula grandiflora (1809) and Spiranthes gemmipara (1810). Papers in Munster Farmer's Mag., 1818 – 20. Biography – D.N.B. 16 33; B. & B. 95.
FOOT (Frederick James): Papers and notes, chiefly on ferns, mostly in Proc. Dublin. Nat. Hist. Soc., 1860 – 71. Biography – Geol. Mag. 1867, 95.
GROVES (Henry) and James GROVES: Papers, mostly on Charophyta, in Journ. Bot. (mainly) and Irish Nat., 1880 – 98. First finders of Nitella tenuissima (1892), and N. gracilis (with R. M. BARRINGTON, 1892).
GROVES (James) and Rev. G. R. BULLOCK – WEBSTER: Papers on Charophyta, in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1917 – 24.
HART (Henry Chichester): “Flora of the County Donegal,” 8vo, Dublin, 1898. “Flora of Howth,” 8vo, Dublin, 1887. Many reports and papers on flora of Irish mountains, rivers, islands, in Journ. Bot. (mainly), Proc. R. Irish Acad., etc., 1873 – 1908. First finder of Cochlearia grcenlandica (before 1896), Helianthemum Cha~cistus (1893), Hieracium hibernicum (1883), Carex Bcenningltauseniana (1883 – 4). Biography – Irish Nat. 1908, 249 – 254 (portrait, list of papers); Journ. Bot. 1911, 121 – 2 (portrait); B. & B. 141 – 2.
HEATON (Rev. Richard): First finder of Dryas octopetala, Gentiana verna, Scilla verna, and very possibly Saxifraga spathularis (umbrosa auct.) and Euphorbia hiberna, published as Irish in How's “Phytologia,” 1650. Biography – Colgan Fl. Dublin xix; B. & B. 143.
HIND (Rev. William Marsden): Papers, mostly in Phytologist, 1851 – 71. Biography – Lett 619.
K'EOGH (John): “Botanica Universalis Hibernica,” 4to, Cork, 1735. Biography – D.N.B. 31 33; B. & B. 172.
KINAHAN (George Henry): Papers on ferns (western), mostly in Proc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc., 1860 – 71. Biography (with portrait) – Irish Nat. 1909, 29 – 31.
KINAHAN (Prof. John Robert): Papers on ferns, mostly in Proc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc., 1854 – 63. Biography – B. & B. 173.
KIRK (Thomas): First finder of Potamogeton sparganiifolius (before 1856).
KNOWLES (Matilda Cullen): Papers and notes (Tyrone, Limerick, etc.) in Irish Nat., Irish Nat. Journ., Proc. R. Irish Acad., 1897 – 1932.
LEEBODY (Mary Isabella): Notes (northern) in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1893 – 1911. First finder of Teesdalia nudicaulis (1896). Biography – Irish Nat. 1911, 218.
LETT (Rev. Henry William): Notes (NE area) in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1884 – 1914. First finder of Rubus Leitii (1901), Hypocho2ris glabra (with C. H. WADDELL, 1900), Carex pauciflora (1889). Biography – Irish Nat. 1921, 41 – 3; Journ. Bot. 1921, 75 – 6; B. & B. 186.
LEVINGE (Harry Corbyn): Papers (mostly on Westmeath plants) in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1891 – 6. First finder of Chara denudata (1892), and (with H. and J. GROVES) of Nitella tenuissima (1892). Biography – Irish Nat. 1906, 107; B. & B. 186 – 7.
LHWYD (Edward): First finder of Arenaria ciliata (1699), Saxifraga Geum (1699), Potentilla fruticosa (1699), Dabeocia polifolia (about 1699), Adiantum, CapillusVeneris (before 1700). Paper in Phil. Trans., 1712. Biography – B. & B. 187.
LINTON (Rev. Edward Francis): Notes and papers in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1886 – 1909. Finder of Carex trinervis (1885).
LYNAM (John): First finder of Sisyrinchium angustifolium (1845). Biography – B. & B. 186.
MACALLA (William), phycologist: First finder of Erica Mackaii (before 1835). Biography – B. & B. 197.
MACKAY (James Townsend): “Flora. Hibernica,” 8vo, Dublin, 1836. Catalogues of Irish plants, and notes, 1806 – 60. First finder of Erica mediterranea•(1830), Arabis Brownii (1805), Bartsia viscosa (before 1806), Sibthorpia europaa (1805), Helianthemum canum (before 1806), Poa alpina (1804), and other plants. Biography – Fl. Dublin xxvi–xxviii; B. & B. 199.
MARSHALL (Rev. Edward Shearburn): Papers (one with W. A. SHOOLBRED) and notes (Wexford, Mayo), in Journ. Bot. (mostly) and Irish Nat., 1892 – 1912. First finder of Ranunculus scoticus (1899), Leucojum cestivum (1897), Sisyrinchium californicum (1896), Tolypella nidifica (1896), Chara connivens (1896). BiographyJourn. Bot. 1920, 1 – 11 (portrait).
MOFFAT (Charles Bethune): “Life and letters of Alexander Goodman More,” 8vo, Dublin, 1898. Papers and notes (mostly Wexford) in Irish Nat. (chiefly) and Journ. Bot., 1889 – •
MOORE (David): Joint author with A. G. MORE of “Contributions towards a Cybele Hibernica,” 8vo, Dublin, 1866. Many papers and notes in Phytol., Journ. Bot., etc., 1843 – 78. First finder of Trifolium glomeratum (1869), Rosa Moorei (c. 1835), Apium, Moorei (before 1866), Inula salicina (1843), Pyrola secunda (1835) P. rotundifolia (1870), Ajaga•pyramidalis (1854), Carex fusca (1835), C. divisa (1866), C. elongata (1837), C. paradoxa, Calamagrostis neglecta var. Hookeri (1836), Glyceria Borreri (before 1866), Equisetum Moorei (with J. MELVILLE, 1851), Chara tomentosa (1841), Tolypella prolif era and T. intricata (before 1860), and other plants. Biography – Gard. Chron. 1879, 739 (portrait); Fl. NE.I. xviii–xx; B. & B. 219; Fl. Dublin xxvii–xxix.
MORE (Alexander Goodman): Joint author with David 1VIooRE of “Contributions towards a Cybele Hibernica,” 1866. Many papers and notes in Journ. Bot., Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., etc., 1855 – 93. First finder of Viola stagnina (1851), Trifolium subterraneura (1867), Scirpus nanus (1868), Deschampsia alpina (before 1872), D. setacea (1869). Biography – “Life and Letters” by C. B. MOFFAT, 1898 (portrait); Irish Nat. 1895, 109 – 116 (portrait, list of papers); Journ. Bot. 1895, 225 – 7 (portrait); Fl. Dublin xxvii–xxx; B. & B. 220.
MORE (Frances M.): First finder of Neotinea intacta, 1864. Biography – Irish Nat. 1909, 132; Fl. Dublin /LXVii – XXiX.
MURPHY (Prof. Edmund): Paper in Mag. Nat. Hist. 1829, etc. First finder of Trollius europceus (before 1829), Rubus Chamaemorus (1826), Polystichum Lonchitis (1826). Biography – – B. & B. 224.
NEWMAN (Edward): Papers and notes, chiefly on ferns, in Phytol. (mainly), 1839 – 54. Biography – Journ. Bot. 1876, 223 – 4; Memoir, by his son (portrait), 1876.
O'BRIEN (Robert Donough): First finder of Scirpus triqueter (1900). Biography – Irish Nat. 1917, 113.
O'KELLY (Patrick B.): First finder of Potamogeton perpygmceus (1891), Limosella aquatica (1893).
OLIVER (Daniel), jun.: Papers in Phytologist, 1851 – 3. First finder of Naias flexilis (1850) and Euphrasia salisburgensis (1852). Biography – Journ. Bot. 1917, 89 – 95 (portrait); B. & B. 233.
O 'MAHONY (Rev. Thaddeus): Paper in Proc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc., 1860. First finder of Simethis planifolia (1848) and Epipactis atropurpurea (1851). Biography – B. & B. 233.
PETHYBRIDGE (George Herbert): Joint author (with R. Ll. PRAEGER) of “Vegetation of the District lying south of Dublin,” Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 25 B 124 – 180, 5 plates, coloured map, 1905.
PHILLIPS (Robert Albert): Notes and papers (S and SE Ireland) in Irish Nat. 1893 – . First finder of Ranunculus lutarius (1894), R. tripartitus (1896), Sorbus latifolia (1924), Enanthe pimpinelloides (1896), Serratula tinctoria (1925), Brachypodium pinnatum (1898).
POWER (Thomas): “The Botanist's Guide for the County of Cork” (in “Contributions towards a Fauna and Flora of the County of Cork,” by J. R. HARVEY, J. D. HUMPHREYS, and T. PowER), 8vo, London, Cork, 1845.
PRAEGER (Robert Lloyd): “Irish Topographical Botany” (1901), and Supplements for 1901 – 5, 1906 – 28, and 1929 – 34, all in Proc. R. Irish Acad. “A Tourist's Flora of the West of Ireland,” 8vo, Dublin, 1909, etc Also many papers and notes in Journ. Bot., Irish Nat (mainly), etc., 1890 – . First finder of Medicago sylve,3 – tris (1894), Sorbus anglica (1933), Arctium majus (1893), Polygonum laxiflorum (1896), Spiranthes stricta (1892), Poa palustris (1896), Glyceria Foucaudii (1903), Lastrea remota (1898), Phegopteris Robertiana (1932), Equisetum litorale (1917).
ROGERS (Rev. William Moyle): “Handbook of British Rubi,” 8vo, London, 1900. Papers and notes on Rubi in Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1894 – 1918. Described several Irish Rubi and determined very many. Biography – Journ. Bot. 1920, 161 – 4 (portrait).
SCULLY (Reginald William): “Flora of County Kerry,” 8vo, Dublin, 1916. Joint editor with N. COLGAN of “Contributions towards a Cybele Hibernica,” 2nd ed., 8vo, Dublin, 1898. Papers and notes, mainly on Kerry plants, Journ. Bot. and Irish Nat., 1888. First finder of Hieracium Seallyi (1894), Polygonum sagittatum (1889), Juncus macer (1889), Carex hibernica• (1889), Nitella batrachosperma (1889), Chara canescens (1894).
SHERARD (William): First finder of Mertensia maritima (c. 1691). Biography – Journ. Bot. 1874, 129 – 138; B. & B. 274.
STELFOX (Arthur Wilson): First finder of Carex Pairai (1920). Papers and notes in “Irish Naturalist,” etc., 1914 – .
STEWART (Samuel Alexander): Joint author with Thomas Hughes CORRY of “A Flora of the North – east of Ireland,” 8vo, Belfast, 1888; and (with R. Ll. PRAEGER) of “A Supplement to the Flora of the North – east of Ireland,” 1895. (See also under WEAR, S.) Reports, papers, and notes (NE (mostly), Fermanagh, L. Allen, Lower Shannon) in Proc. R. Irish Acad., Journ. Bot., and Irish Nat., 1865 – 1904. First finder of Ranunculus fluitans (1865), Hieracium Stewartii (1891), Carex aquatilis (1884). Biography – Irish Nat. 1910, 201 – 9 (with portrait and list of papers); Journ. Bot. 1911, 122 – 3 (portrait); Lett 623 – 4; B. & B. 289.
STOKES (Whitley): First finder of Trichomanes radicans (before 1804). Biography – B. & B. 290.
TATE (Prof. Ralph): “Flora Belfastiensis,” 16mo, Belfast, 1863. A few notes in Journ. Bot., etc. Biography – Fl. NE.I. xx – xxi; Irish Nat. 1902, 36 – 9; B. & B. 296.
TEMPLETON (John): MS. “Flora Hibernica” and other MSS. in Library R. I. Academy. Letter (on Rosa hibernica) in Trans. R. Dublin Soc. 3 162, 1802. First finder of Rosa hibernica (1795), Sisymbrium Ligusticum seoticum (1793), Adoxa Moschatellina (with J. L. DRUMMOND, 1820), Orobanche rubra (before 1793). and many other plants, Biography – Fl. NE.I. xvi – xviii; B. & B. 298; Fl. Dublin xxiv – xxv; Lett 616 – 7.
THOMPSON (William), author of “The Natural History of Ireland,” 4 vols. Notes in Ann. Nat. Hist. and Phytologist, 1842 – 3. First finder of Elatine Hydro – piper (1836), Astragalus danicus (with R. BALL, 1834), Allium Babingtonii (with R. BALL, 1834). Biography – Memoir, by R. Patterson, in Thompson: Nat. Hist. of I., 4 (portrait).
THRELKELD (Caleb): “Synopsis Stirpium Hibernicarum,” 12mo, Dublin, 1726. Biography – Fl. Dublin xix – xx; B. & B. 301.
TOMLINSON (W. J. C.): Paper and notes in Irish Nat., 1903 – 16. Biography – Irish Nat., 1921, 108.
TOWNSEND (Miss H.): Finder of Heliauthemum guttatunt (before 1843).
TRENCH (Miss): Finder of Euphorbia Peplis (1839). Biography – Lett 620 – 1.
VOWELL (Richard Prendergast): Joint author with R. M. BARRINGTON (vide) of reports in Proc. R. Irish Acad., 1885 – 8. First finder (with R. M. BARRINGTON) of Epilobium alsinefolium (1884). Biography – Irish Nat. 1911, 218.
WADDELL (Rev. Cosslett Herbert): Notes (mostly NE area) in Irish Nat., 1892 – 1917. First finder of Hieracium senescens (1900), Hypochceris glabra (with H. W. LETT, 1900), Erythraa litoralis (with J. E. SAUL, 1913), Rhinanthus major (1908), and some critical plants. Biography – Irish Nat. 1919, 108; Journ. Bot. 1919, 358 – 9; B. & B. 311.
WADE (Walter): “Catalogus systematicus plantarum indigenarum in comitatu Dublinensi inventarum,” Pars prima. 8vo, Dublin, 1794. Papers in Trans. R. Dublin Soc., 1802 – 4. First finder of Matthiola sintucta (1804), Eriocaulon septangulare (1801). Biography – Fl. Dublin, xxiii – xxiv; B. & B. 312.
WEAR (Sylvanus): “A Second Supplement and Summary of Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North – east of Ireland,” Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1923. Biography – Irish Nat. 1921, 23.
WHITE (J.): “An Essay on the indigenous Grasses of Ireland.” Dublin, 1808. Contributor to “The Irish Flora,” 1833. Biography – Fl. Dublin, xxvii; B. & B. 180.
WHITLA (William): First finder of Equisetum trachyodon (1830). Biography – B. & B. 325.
WYNNE (Rt. Hon. John): First finder of Arabis petraa and Saxifraga sitvalis (1837). Biography – B. & B. 336.


Introduction and Preface; 1-26: Geography, Topology, Climate; 27-47: General history of the flora ;
48-69: Vegetational sub-divisions; 70-78: Human Influence and Botanical workers;
79-219: Some Interesting Plants;