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AUGUSTINE HENRY: HIS BOTANICAL ACTIVITIES IN CHINA, 1882-1890.

BRIAN D. MORLEY
Adelaide Botanic Garden, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia.
Glasra 3: 2181.
publication date 1. vii. 1979

ABSTRACT. Unlike Wilson or Kingdon-Ward, Augustine Henry (1857-1930) published little about his important work in central China between the years 1882 and 1889, a time when he was making known to the western world the richness of the flora of that area. His diaries for the period enable one to follow his activities and introduce other botanists with whom he worked and corresponded. The important contribution by native plant collectors is made clear in accounts of payment to them by Henry. A list of the better known - plants discovered by Henry in this period is given.

PROLOGUE

"The deaths, first of Augustine Henry, then of Farrer and Wilson and now of Forrest, all within a few years of each other, close the opening chapter in the history of botanical exploration in western China. ."
The Gardener's Chronicle, January 23, 1932, p.53.

To gardeners and other horticulturits the name Henry is perhaps not so well known as E. H. Wilson, George Forrest or Frank Kingdon-Ward. Henry was not a full-time plant collector in China, being an employee of the Imperial Maritime Customs Service. However, he did collect plants in an area which had been inaccessible to most western botanists, and he demonstrated the richness of the montane flora of central China, Henry was not the first European to collect plants in the Ichang area of Western Hupeh; T. Watters had collected plants in tl)e vicinity between 1879 and 1880. In 1879 Charles Maries (1851-1902) collecting for the firm of Veitch & Sons had made his way to Ichang but James H. Veitch (1906) noted, "With the natives of China, Manes did not succeed so well as with the Japanese, he was not sufficiently gentle, and was often threatened and occasionally robbed of his baggage; in the summer of 1879 he returned to Japan ...Manes had enthusiasm, but lacked staying power". In a manner of speaking, Manes and Watters had gone to the treasure chest of the Chinese flora. but Henry opened the lid.





SOME PLANTS DISCOVERED BY A. HENRY BETWEEN 1885 AND 1889.

There is not space to list all of the plants collected under Henry's name on his first tour of duty, or those new species and genera discovered. The following is a selection marked by an asterisk where the plant has since been introduced to gardens and with a note of who made the introduction when known in the literature. The number of the figure in Hooker's lcones Plantarum (e.g. Ic. Pl. 1896) is noted.

Not all specific epithets commemorating Henry necessarily relate to Augustine, for the Rev. B. C. Henry was a contemporary who arrived in Canton in 1873 with the American Presbyterian Board of Missions. The Rev. Henry discovered many species new to science and was commemorated in the naming of some of them. However, most of B. C. Henry's discoveries were formally described by Hance, rather than Kew botanists such as Hemsley or Oliver as is the case with the plants of A. Henry. Thus, Rhododendron henryi Hance and R. augustinii Hemsl. commemorate the two Henry's, B. C. and A. respectively. In one or two cases, such as Macaranga henricorum Hemsl. and Machilus henryi Hemsl., the species honours both collectors in the same epithet as intended by the botanical author.

APPENDIX 2
Abelia parviflora Hemsl.
Acer henryi Pax*, introduced Wilson, 1903. (Ic. Pl. 1896).
Actinotinus sinensis Oliv., the trick. (Ic. Pl. 1740).
Allium henryi C. H. Wright
Androsace henryi Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1973).
Anemone henryi Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1570).
Aralia henryi Harms*
Ardisia henryi Hemsl.*
Asarum maximum Hemsl.*, introduced Henry via Ford, 1894.
Aster henryi Hemsl.
Astragalus henryi Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1959).
Begonia henryi Hemsl.
Buddleia albiflora Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1900,
B. davidii Franch.*, discovered David, 1869; improved forms discovered Henry, introduced Wilson, 1900-08. Syn. B. variabilis Hemsl.
Calanthe henryi Rolfe
Carex ichangensis C. B, Clarke
Carpinus laxiflora Bl. var. macrostachya Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1900. (Ic. Pl. 1989).
Castanopsis henryi Skan
Celastrus angulatus Maxim.*, introduced Wilson, 1900. Syn. C. latifolius Hemsl. (Ic. Pl. 2206).
Chaenomeles cathayensis (Hemsl.) Schneid*, introduced Wilson 1900.
Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1600).
Clematis henryi Oliv., not to be confused with C. lanuginosa Lindl. cv. Henryi (Ic. Pl. 1819).
C. leiocarpa Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1533).
Cnicus henryi Franch.
Codonopsis henryi Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1967).
C. tangshen Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1902. (Ic. Pl. 1966).
Coelogyne henryi Rolfe
Corydalis cheilanthifolia Hem sI,*
Cotoneaster henryanus (Schneid.) Rehd. & Wils.*, introduced Wilson, 1901.
Cryptotaeniopsis vulgaris Dunn, new genus.
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe
Decumaria sinensis Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1908, (Ic. Pl. 1741)
Deinant'he caerulea Stapf*, introduced Wilson, 1908.
Delphinium henryi Franoh.
Deutzia discolor Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1901.
Dicentra macrantha* Oliv., introduced Henry 1889. (Ic. Pl. 1937).
Dipteronia sinensis Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1900. (Ic. Pl. 1898)
Dracocephalum henryi Hemsl,
Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliv.
Emmenopterys henryi Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1907, new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1823).
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1900, new genus
Euphorbia henryi Hemsl.
Gentiana henryi Hemsl.
Goodyera henryi Rolfe
Gymnocladus chinensis Baill.*, introduced Henry to Kew, 1888.
Hemiboea henryi Clarke, new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1798). Hemsleya chinensis Cogn. (Ic. Pl. 1822).
Henrya augustina Hemsl., new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1971).
Ilex macrocarpa Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1907. (Ic. Pl. 1787).
Iris henryi Baker
Isopyrum henryi Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1745).
Itea ilicifolia Oliv.*, introduced Henry to Lord Kesteven, 1886. (Ic. Pl. 1538).
Jasminum sinense Hemsl. * , introduced Wilson, 1900.
Ligustrum henryi Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1901,
Lilium henryi Baker*, introduced Henry via Ford, 1889.
Lindera cercidifolia Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson. 1907.
Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl) Sarg.*, introduced Wilson.
Lonicera henryi Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1908.
L. pileata Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1900. (Ic. Pl. 1585).
L. tragophylla Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1900.
Loxocalyx urticifolius Hemsl.. new genus.
Lysimachia henryi Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson. 1902.
Machilus macrophylla IJemsl.
Marsdenia sinensis Hemsl.
Mazus gracilis Hemsl.
Morus cathayana Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1907.
Mucuna sempervirens Hemsl.*, introduced Henry
Nauclea sinensis Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1956).
Neillia affinis Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1908.
N. sinensis Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1901. (Ic. Pl. 1540).
Nyssa sinensis Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1902.
Oligobotrya henryi Baker (Ic. Pl. 1537).
Oreocharis henryana Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1944).
Parthenocissus henryana (Hemsl.) Diels & Gilg*, introduced Wilson, 1900.
Pedicularis henryi Maxim.
Pentapanax henryi Harms*, introduced Wilson, 1908.
Petrocosmea sinensis Oliv., new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1716).
Phylloboea sinensis Oliv. (Ic. Pl. 1721).
Phyllostach.vs henryi Rendle
Pinellia integrifolia N.E. ,Br,* (Ic. Pl. 1875).
Pinus henryi Masters
Platanthera henryi (Rolfe) Rolfe
Plectranthus henryi Hemsl.
Poliothyrsis sinensis Oliv.*,. introduced Wilson, 1908, new genus, (Ic. Pl. 1885).
Populus lasiocarpa Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1900. (Ic. Pl. 1943).
Prenanthes henryi Dunn
Prunus velutina Batal,
Pterocarya hupehensis Skan*, introduced Wilson, 1901.
Rehmannia henryi N.E. Br.*, introduced Wilson, 1907.
R. rupestris Hemsl., introduced Henry, 1887.
Rhododendron augustinii Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1901.
R. auriculatum Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1900.
Rubus henryi Hemsl. & O. Kuntze*, introduced Wilson, 1900. (Ic. Pl. 1705).
Salix henryi Burkill
Saruma henryi Oliv., new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1895).
Saussurea henryi Hemsl.
Schizophragma integrifolia Oliv.* introduced Wilson. 1901 (Ic. PI. 1934).
Senecio henryi Hemsl.
Sindechites henryi Oliv., new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1772).
Spiraea henryi Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson 1900.
Staphylea holocarpa Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1908.
Stipa henryi Rendle
Streptopus paniculatus Baker (Ic. Pl. 1932).
Strobilanthes henryi Hemsl.
Sycopsis sinensis Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1901. (I~. PI. 1931).
Tetraentron sinense Oliv.*, introduced Wilson, 1901, new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1892).
Tilia henryana Szys.* introduced Wilson, 1901. (Ic. Pl. 1927)
Tilia oliveri Szys.*, introduced Wilson 1900.
Trapella sinensis Oliv. new genus. (Ic. Pl. 1595).
Vaccinium henryi Hemsl.
Viburnum henryi Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1901,
Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl.*, introduced Wilson, 1900.
Wattakaka sinensis (Hemsl.) Stapf*, introduced Wilson, 1907. (Syn, Dregea sinensis Hemsl.)



It should be remembered that Henry also refound numerous previously described species having horticultural merit, a service which was useful to subsequent plant hunters such as E. H. Wilson as the above annotations show. Typical species of this sort are Buddleia officinalis Maxim., Davidia involucrata Baill. of which Henry sent the first fruits back to Europe, Hamamelis mollis Oliv., l!ex pernyi Franch., Lonicera maackii Maxim., Pachysandra axillaris Franch., Primula obconica Hance., Rehmannia angulata Hemsl., Rosa banksiae R.Br. of which Henry discovered the wild form, Salix moupinensis Franch., and Senecio clivorum Maxim. The well known Hypericum patulum Thunb. var. henryi Hort. is not included above as it was discovered during Henry's third tour of duty in western China. This variety is now divided into three distinct species, see J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 95 : 482-497, the species being H. pseudohenryi N. Robson, H. acmosepalum N. Robson and H. beanii N. Robson. Also discovered during the third tour was H. augustinii N. Robson.

Numerous illustrations in Hooker's Icones Plantarum were prepared from Henry's collection; a list prepared by the author is available from the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.