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LYDIA SHACKLETON’S PAINTINGS IN THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS, GLASNEVIN

BRIAN D. MORLEY
Adelaide Botanic Gardens, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000.
Glasra 2: 25–36.
publication date 5. v. 1978

ABSTRACT. The 110 complete paintings of Lydia Shackleton housed in the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, are briefly described and catalogued with appropriate botanical name changes. The genera Paeonia, Lachenalia, Sarracenia and Helleborus are the main subjects illustrated; species, cultivars and hybrids being included. The paintings were made from plants cultivated in the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, in the late nineteenth century.
INTRODUCTION

The collection of botanical paintings by Lydia Shackleton (1828-1914) in the National Botanic Garden. Glasnevin, may represent the largest assemblage of her work anywhere. It is coincidental that her initials. L.S. and the way in which they are written, closely resemble those of another botanical artist, Lilian Snelling (b, 1879). But the resemblance stops there, for Miss Shackleton’s paintings are more ‘open’ and free in the way the paint is applied. Miss Snelling painted in a ‘closer’ and more detailed fashion, as can be seen by comparison of their respective Paeonia (Paeoniaceae) paintings: see Miss Snelling’s Paeonia studies in Stern (1946).

Where Miss Shackleton depicts a large floral subject, such as Paeonia, her gouache and watercolour technique enabled her to make the flower glow with colour, and also enabled her to create leaves with good colour and texture. All of her Glasnevin paintings, approximately lifesize, are on tinted paper so that highlights are done with white paint. Where smaller subjects were studied, Miss Shackleton’s technique is not so pleasing and botanical details are indistinct. A series of Lachenalia (Liliaceae) paintings demonstrate this, but at the same time are memorable for the dried specimens mounted beside the painting, almost as if Miss Shackleton felt her detailed work in need of support from the actual specimen.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

In 1947, a booklet entitled Lydia Shackleton 1828-1914 was privately published; the following biographical details are quoted from this source.

"Lydia Shackleton was born at Grisemount, Ballitore, Co. Kildare on 22nd November 1828. She was third in a family of thirteen children, so that at an early age she had a good deal of responsibility, and had to undertake the teaching and care of the younger members of the family. This meant that she had little time when young to devote to her own choice of occupation; painting, reading and horticulture.

She had an outlook, both religious and otherwise, a good deal ahead of her period, and this, unfortunately, estranged her to a certain extent from the sympathy of her mother, who was a rigid Quaker of the old school.

When she lived in Lucan, her nephews and nieces living in the district were sent to her to be taught their early lessons. Several of her verses are a record of this small school, and one can see that “Aunt Lyd” as she was familiarly called, enjoyed teaching her little class.

She was really fond of children, but her precise ways and particularity over trifles did not endear her to them at times. However, as they grew older, they learned to appreciate her at her true worth, and some of her verses show how much she appreciated their occasional gifts to her.

An enduring monument of her work may be found in the offices of the Botanic Gardens at Glasnevin, as she was employed for a number of years to paint rare orchids and unusual plants for the gardens.

She did a great deal of flower painting, both for her own satisfaction and for her friends. Her flowers were always beautifully drawn and coloured and botanically correct in every detail. She had no use for hurried or careless work.

It is quite possible that this fine work may have affected her eyesight, as in her latter years she became blind, but bore the loss of sight with great patience and fortitude, and passed away at the age of 86 in December 1914.

CATALOGUE ARRANGEMENT

The following catalogue enumerates all the paintings at Glasnevin, except the orchid studies which were cut up sometime prior to 1969 and placed in the Orchidaceae section of the Foreign Herbarium in 1972 (
Paeonia L. (Paeoniaceae)

1 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. Mrs. Lawrenson; 1893].
2 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. candida; 6.1892].
3 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. major, Smith & Co.; 1893].
4 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. pottsii; 1893].
5 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. rosea; 1893].
6 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. rubescens; 1893].
7 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. sibirica; 6.1892].
8 P. lactiflora Pall. [P. albiflora var. vestalis; 6.1892].
9 P. anomala L. [P. anomala (white carpels), Barr; 1893].
10 P. officinalis L. [P. anemonaeflora, Ware; 1893].
11 P. officinalis L, [P. anemonaeflora, Barr; 1893].
12 P. mascula (L.) Mill. subsp. arietina (G. Anderson) Cullen & Heywood [P. arietiana; 5.1892].
13 P. bakeri Lynch [P. bakeri; 5.1893].
14 P. broteri Boiss. & Reuter [P. broterii, 6. 1892].
15 P. mascula (L.) Mill. subsp. arietina (G. Anderson) Cullen & Heywood [P. cretica, (arietina oxoniensis); 5. 1893].
16 P. mascula (L.) Mill. [P. corallina; 6. 1892].
17 P. peregrina Mill. [P. decora var. elatior; 6. 1892].
18 P. emodi Wall. ex Royle [P. emodi; 6. 1892].
19 P. hybrida Pall. [P. hybrida, Barr; 1893].
20 P. officinalis L. subsp. humilis (Retz.) Cullen & Heywood [P. humilis, 5. 1893].
21 P. lobata? [P. lobata; 6. 1892].
22 P. mollis G. Anderson [P. mollis; 1893].
23 P. officinalis L. var. alba Hort. [P. officinalis var. alba; 5. 1892].
24 P. officinalis L. var. alba Hort. [P. officinalis var. alba; 5. 1896].
25 P. peregrlna Mill. cv. Sunbeam [P. officinalis var. Sunbeam; no date].
26 P. peregrina Mi1l. cv. Sunbeam [P. officinalis var. Sunbeam; 6. 1892].
27 P. officinahs L. var. [P. officinalis var.; 1893].
28 P. mollis G. Anderson [P. pubens; 5. 1893].
29 P. mascula (L.) Mill. subsp. russii (Biv.) Cullen & Heywood [P. russii, no date].
30 P. anomala L. var. intermedia (C. A. Meyer) O. & B. Fedtschenko [P. tenuifolia var. intermedia, Ware; 6. 1892].
31 P. villosa Sweet [P. villosa, P. sessiliflora; 5. 1892].
32 P. wittmanniana Hartwiss ex Lindl. [P. wittmanniana; no date].
33 P. wittmanniana Hartwiss ex Lindl. [P. wittmanniana; no datel
No illustration of P. x emodoff is included; it was a hybrid which Sir Frederick Moore told F. C. Stern arose at Glasnevin as a cross between pollen parent P. emodi and P. officinalis var. alba. I came across the lead label of P. x emodoff whilst identifying peonies in the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, but the material grown in 1970 appeared to be normal P. emodi, Stern called the hybrid "a specially robust form of P. emodi"

Lachenalia Jacq. (Liliaceae)
The paintings give a good representation of Lachenalia spp. in cultivation about 1890, as well as certain primary hybrids, on the basis of the account given by F. W. Moore (1891), who must have been instrumental in commissioning Miss Shackleton's studies of the group. No recent revision of Lachenalia exists so that I have based the nomenclature of the catalogue on Baker's treatment (1897). Unlike the peonies, there is a list of the lachenalias painted by Miss Shackleton which is undated: however, herbarium specimens from Glasnevin are dated 4.1887 and 5.1887 and the paper used in the paintings is watermarked Whatman 1890, so that it seems they were executed over a period of several years. (An asterisk after the catalogue number indicates that a herbarium specimen is mounted beside the painting).
34.* L. tricolor Jacq.f., var. aurea (Lindl.) Hook.f, x L. reflexa Thunb. [L. aurea var. reflexa, Baker in Gardener's Chronicle April 30th 1887, no date].
The note presumably refers to the hybrid L. aurea x- L. reflexa described by Baker (1897), and referred to by Moore (1891) as L. aureo-reflexa, a plant apparently raised by the Rev. John Nelson and exhibited by Barr & Son on March 10th 1885 at the Royal Horticultural Society under the cultivar name "Aldborough Beauty".
35.* L. cv. Cammii [L. cami Hort. Leichtl., no date].
Baker (1897) noted this as a hybrid between L. tricolor var. aurea and L. pendula Ait. ,
36.* L. cv. Cawston Gem [L. Cawston Gem (Marsh), L. quadricolor var. maculata x tricolor, no date].
Baker treats L. quadricolor Jacq. as a variety of L. tricolor. The Rev. Theodore H. Marsh of Cawston Rectory, Norwich, is alluded to in the inscription on the painting; he raised cv. Cawston Gem and sent material to Glasnevin.
37.* L. cv. Garnet [L. Garnet (Marsh), L. quadricolor var. maculata x nelsoni, no date].
This is another seedling created by Rev. Marsh, one of the parents being a hybrid (see below). It was sent to Glasnevin by Marsh.
38.* L. glaucina Jacq. [L glaucina Jacq. var., no date].
39.* L. orchioides (L.) Ait. cv. Atroviolacea [L. glaucina Jacq var. atroviolacea, no date].
Moore (1891) does not refer to this cultivar, but Baker (1897) mentions a colour form not under L. glaucina but under L. orchioides. and this I have followed.
40.* L. orchioides (L.) Ait. cv. Viridis [L. glaucina Jacq. var viridis no date]. Baker (1897) does not mention this cultivar, unlike Moore (1891), but does list a colour form not under L. glaucina but L. orchioides called virentiflava, which may relate to the illustrated plant.
41.* L. cv. Nelsonii [L. x nelsoni, L. aurea x tricolor var. luteola, no date]
This cultivar according to Moore (1891), was raised by Rev. Nelson some- time prior to 1880 from the cross L. tricolor var. aurea x L. tricolor var. luteola (Jacq.) Sims.
42.* L. cv Nelsonii x cv. Cammi [L nelsoni x cami, no date].
I can find no mention of this cross in the contemporary literature.
43.* L. cv. Nelsonii x L. versicolor Baker [L nelsoni x versicolor, no date].
Baker (1897) places L. versicolor in synonymy with L. unicolor Jacq. I can find no reference to this hybrid in the contemporary literature.
44.* L. orchioides (L.) Ait. [L. orchioides, no date].
45.* L. orchioides (L) Ait. [L. orchioides, blue form, no date]. 46.* L. orthopetala Jacq. [L. orthopetala. no date]. 47.* L. pallida Ait. [L. pallida, no date].
48.* L. pendula Ait [L. pendula Ait. Kew, no date].
49.* L. pendula Ait. cv. Gigantea [L. pendula var. gigantea, no date].
I can find no reference to var. gigantea and presume it to be a robust variant which according to Moore (1891) is not due to cultivation, "(L. pendula) increases freely, (var. gigantea) very slowly, besides which the type flowers earlier, and there is a marked difference in habit". The flowers are somewhat larger than in L. pendula, and pendulous instead of horizontally borne.
50. L. purpureo-coerulea Jacq. [L. purpureo-coeruleum, 3. 1894].
51.* L. tricolor Jacq.f. var quodricolor (Jacq) Baker [L. quadricolor var. maculata = (superba), no date].
52. L. rejlexa Thunb. [L. rejlexa. L 1894].
53.* L. reflexa Thunb. x L. cv Nelsonii [L. reflexa x x nelsoni, no date].
Moore (1891) mentions hybrids between 'L. aureo-reflexa' and L. cv. Nelsonii, and Baker (1899) lists hybrids between L. reflexa and L. tricolor var. aurea originating at Glasnevin, but neither mention hybrids between L. reflexa and L. cv. Nelsonii. There may be a mistake on Baker's part, or the hybrid illustrated above may have been made without Bakers knowledge, and not mentioned by Moore
54A.* L. rubida Jacq.-upper study [L. rubida Jacq" no date].
B.* L. rubida Jacq. var. tigrina (Jacq) Baker-lower study. [L. rubida Jacq. var. tigrina Gawl., no date].
55.* L. tricolor Jacq. f. [L. tricolor, no date].
56.* L. tricolor Jacq. f. var. aurea (Lindl.) Hook. f. [L. tricolor var. aurea, no date].
57.* L. tricolor Jacq. f. var. luteola (Jacq.) Sims [L. tricolor var. luteola, no date].
58.* L. unicolor Jacq. var. fragrans (Jacq.) Baker [L. versicolor var. fragrans form, no date].
59. Lachenalia corollas in taxonomic (subgeneric) groupings: 1 Eulachenalia, 2 Coelanthus, 3 Orchiops, 4 Chloriza, but 5 Brachyscypha is missing; not dated.
60. Lachenalia test card, perianth lobe shape and colour; not dated.

Sarraceniaceae Dum.
David Moore (director of the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, 1838-1879) raised the first hybrid Sarracenia - S. x moorei Hort. (S. drummondii Croom x S. flava L.) - and exhibited the hybrid at the Florence Botanical Congress of 1874. As a consequence Glasnevin was an early centre of Sarracenia hybridisation; The Garden 30: (1886, opp. p. 366) used material from Glasnevin to illustrate an article on the genus. A Glasnevin foreman, Mr. Pope, cared for the Sarracenia spp. for many years, and is commemorated by the hybrid S. x popei Hort. (S. flava L. x S. rubra Walt.). Many hybrid seedlings were raised at Glasnevin and the incomplete identities written on the following paintings may relate to progeny of uncertain parentage. There is no list of the paintings.
61 Darlingtonia californica Torr. [Darlingtonia californica, May 1886] : flower, fruit and leaf.
62 Darlingtonia californica Torr. [No annotation] : flower and fruit only.
63 Sarracenia x chelsonii Bort. = S. purpurea L. x S. rubra Walt. [S. x chelsoni, May 1885] : flower and leaf.
This hybrid was raised by Messrs. Veitch in 1877.
64 S. x moorei Bort. x S. ign. = S. drummondii Croom x S. flava L. x S. ign. [S. moorei x -; May 1887]: flower only.
The plant illustrated has S. x moorei as a parent.
65 S. x patersonii Hort. = S. purpurea L. x S. flava L. [S. x patersoni, May, 1885] : flower and leaf.
This hybrid commemorates Dr. Paterson, of the Bridge of Allen, who raised it.
66 S. x popei Bort. x S. ign, = S. f/ava L. x S. rubra Walt. x S. ign. [S. popei x -; May 1887] : flower only.
Both S. x popei and S. x moorei material from Glasnevin formed the basis for the coloured plate in The Garden 30: (1886 opp. p. 366). The plant painted has S. x. popei as a parent.
67 S. rubra Walt. [S. rubra, May 1885] : flower and leaf.
68 S. rubra Walt. cv. Acuminata [S. ruVra var. acuminata, May 1885] : flower and leaves.
I have not traced the var. acuminata in the literature, and suggest it may only be a product of cultivation or part of the variation pattern of the species.
69 S. minor Walt. [S. variolaris, October 1887] : flower and leaf.

Helleborus L. (Ranunculaceae)
Some of these paintings may have value in identifying early cultivars of the H. orientalis hybrids (Lenten Roses). There are three lists of these paintings, one of the lists being dated 'Autumn 1887'.
70 H. atrorubens Hort. [H. abschasicus Braun, Gartenfl., H. atrorubens Hooker, Bat. Mag., no date].
71 H. orientalis hybrid [H. abschasicus var. albus, June 1886].
72 H. orientalis hybrid [H. antiquorum, May 1885].
73 H. orientalis hybrid [H. Apoteker Bogren, 1887].
The cultivar name may be a valid one but I have not checked it.
74 H. corsicus Willd. [H. argutifolius = H. corsicus. no date].
75 H. orientalis hybrid [H. atrarubens var., antiquorum var., no date].
76 H. dumetorum Waldst. & Kit. in Willd. form [H. atrarubens Hort., no date].
77 H. purpurascens Waldst. & Kit. [H. atraviridis, 1887].
78 H. boccanei Ten. [H. bocconi, Barr. H. odorus?, no date].
79 H. orientalis hybrid [H. bocconi var. superbus, 1887].
80 H. orientalis hybrid [H. colchicus var. speciosus, April 1888].
81 H. dumetarum Waldst. & Kit. in Willd. [H. cupreus, 1885].
82 H. cyclaphyllus Boiss. [H. cyclophyllus, no date].
83 H. orientalis hybrid [H. F. J. H;eineman, May, 1887].
84 H. faetidus L. [H. faetidus L. 24 March 1886].
85 H. orientalis hybrid [H. graveolens? , viridis, no date].
86 H. viridis L. subsp. occidentalis (Reuter) Schiff. [H. graveolens, viridis laevis? , May 1885].
87 H. orientalis Lam. [H. guttatus var. alba grandiflorus, no date].
88 H. orientalis Lam. [H. H. C. Benary, no date]. I have not checked this cultivar name.
89 H. orientalis hybrid [no annotations].
90 H. orientalis hybrid [H. hybridus Heyderi, April 1888].
91 H. dumetorum Waldst. & Kit. in Willd. subsp. atrorubens (Waldst & Kit.) Merxm & Podl. [H. intermedius, April 1888]. ,
92 H. viridis L. subsp. accidentalis (Reuter) Schiff. [H. laxus, May 1887].
93 H. orientalis hybrid [H. lividescens, May 1887].
94 H. niger L. subsp. macranthus (Freyn) Sr;hitf. [H. niger var. maximus no date].
95 H. niger L. [H. niger Mr. Poe's variety, 1887].
96 H. niger L. [H. niger var. angustifolius, Mr. Brockbank's plant, 1887)
97 H. adarus Waldst. & Kit. in Willd. [H. odorus, 1887].
98 H. cyclaphyllus Boiss [H. orientalis, Mt. Olympus, 1925, G. P. Baker], pencil sketch.
99 H. orientalis Lam. [H. orientalis, Nicea, pointicus?, 1925, G. P. Baker].
100 H. orientalis hybrid [H. orientalis, May 1887].
101 H. orientalis hybrid [H. orientalis Dr. Moore, 1887]. I have not checked this cultivar name.
102 H. orientalis hybrid [H. P. R. Barr, no date]. I have not checked this cultivar name.
103 H. orientalis hybrid [H. punctatissimus, no date].
104 H. multifidus Vis. subsp. serbicus (Adamovic) Merxm. & Podl. form [H. .torquatus Hind., Harr, no date].
105 H. viridis L. [H. viridis?, no date].
106 H. orientalis Lam. [H. Willie Schmidt, 1887]. I have not checked this cultivar name.

Miscellaneous
107 Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott (Araceae) [Arisaema or Arum triphyllum, Jack in the Pulpit, Ohio, no date].
108 Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) [L. usitatissimum, no date].
109 Mitchella repens L. (Rubiaceae) [M. repens, no date].
This painting is an envelope addressed to Thomas Acton, Kilmacurragh, Rathdrum, Co. Wicklow, the postmark 'Rathdrum, Ja. 7. 1900'. This garden still contains a number of fine trees, and in its day also had a good collection of other plants.
110 Rosa banksiae Ait. var. lutea Lindl. (Rosaceae) [No annotations].